Instrument Rating Oral Study Guide

pilotguy0917's version from 2017-09-11 22:40

Flight Planning

Question Answer
An applicant for an instrument rating must have at least how much and what type of flight time as pilot? (14 CFR 61.65) An applicantAn applicant must have:
a. 50 hours of cross-country flight time as PIC, of which at least 10 hours must be in airplanes;
b. 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time (on the areas of operation specified);
c. 15 hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in the aircraft category for which the instrument rating is sought;
d. 3 hours of instrument training appropriate to the instrument rating sought from an authorized instructor, in preparation for the practical test, within the 60 days preceding the date of test;
e. 250 NM cross-country, conducted under IFR, including 3 different kinds of approaches.
When is an instrument rating required? (14 CFR 61.3e, 91.157)When operations are conducted:
a. Under instrument flight rules (IFR flight plan),
b. In weather conditions less than the minimum for VFR flight,
c. In Class A airspace, d. Under Special VFR within Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E surface areas between sunset and sunrise.
What are the recency-of-experience requirements to be PIC of a flight under IFR? (14 CFR 61.57)The recency-of-experience requirements are:
a. A biennial flight review;
b. To carry passengers, 3 takeoffs and landings within the preceding 90 days (full stop at night);
c. Within the preceding 6 calendar months, logged under actual or simulated instrument conditions, either in flight in the appropriate category of aircraft, or in a flight simulator or flight training device (representative of the category for the privileges sought) —
• At least six instrument approaches; • Holding procedures; and • Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems.
If a pilot allows his/her instrument currency to expire, what can be done to become current again? (14 CFR 61.57, 91.109)A pilot is current for the first 6 months following his/her instrument checkride or proficiency check. If the pilot has not accomplished at least 6 approaches (including holding procedures, intercepting/tracking courses through the use of navigation systems) within this first 6 months, he/she is no longer legal to file and fly under IFR. To become legal again, the regulations allow a “grace period” (the second 6-month period), in which a pilot may get current by finding an “appropriately rated” safety pilot, and in simulated IFR conditions only, acquire the 6 approaches, etc. If the second 6-month period also passes without accomplishing the minimum, a pilot may reinstate his/her currency by accomplishing an instrument proficiency check given by an examiner, an authorized instructor, or an FAA-approved person to conduct instrument practical
What are the required qualifications for a person to act as a “safety pilot”? (14 CFR 61.3, 61.55, and 91.109)The safety pilot must:
a. Possess a current medical certificate (the safety pilot is acting as a required crewmember).
b. Possess at least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft being flown.
c. If the flight is to be conducted on an IFR flight plan, the safety pilot is also required to have an instrument rating (see 61.55(a)(2) second-in-command requirements).

Preflight Action for Flight (IFR or Flight Not in the Vicinity of Airport)

Question Answer
What information must a pilot-in-command be familiar with before a flight? (14 CFR 91.103)All available information including:
a. Weather reports and forecasts
b. Fuel requirements
c. Alternatives if the flight cannot be completed as planned
d. Known ATC delays
e. Runway lengths of intended use
f. Takeoff and landing distances
What are the fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions? (14 CFR 91.167)The aircraft must carry enough fuel to fly to the first airport of intended landing (including the approach), the alternate airport (if required), and thereafter, for 45 minutes at normal cruise speed. If an alternate airport is not required, enough fuel must be carried to fly to the destination airport and land with 45 minutes of fuel remaining.
Before conducting an IFR flight using GPS equipment for navigation, what basic preflight checks should be made? (FAA-H-8261-1)Preflight preparations should include: a. Verify that the GPS equipment is properly installed and certified for the planned IFR operation. b. Verify that the database is current and has not expired. c. Review the GPS NOTAM/RAIM information for the planned route of flight.

Preflight Action for Aircraft

Question Answer
Who is responsible for determining if an aircraft is in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.7)The pilot-in-command is responsible.
What aircraft instruments/equipment are required for IFR operations? (14 CFR 91.205)Those required for VFR day and night flight plus:
G enerator or alternator of adequate capacity
R adios (nav equipment suitable for facilities used)
A ltimeter (sensitive)
B all (slip/skid indicator of turn coordinator)
C lock (sweep second hand or digital presentation)
A ttitude indicator
R ate of turn (turn coordinator)
D irectional gyro D ME or RNAV (for flight at FL240 and above if VOR equipment is required for the route)
What are the required tests and inspections of aircraft and equipment to be legal for IFR flight? (14 CFR 91.171, 91.409, 91.411 and 91.413)a. The aircraft must have an annual inspection. If operated for hire or giving flight instruction for hire, it must also have a 100-hour inspection. A record must be kept in the aircraft/engine logbooks. b. The pitot/static system must have been checked within the preceding 24 calendar months. A record must be kept in the aircraft logbook. c. The transponder must have been checked within the preceding 24 calendar months. A record must be kept in the aircraft logbook. d. The altimeter must have been checked within the preceding 24 calendar months. A record must be kept in the aircraft logbook. e. The VOR must have been checked within the preceding 30 days. A record must be kept in a bound logbook. f. ELT battery and inspection (12 calendar months).
May portable electronic devices be operated on board an aircraft? (14 CFR 91.21)No person may operate nor may any PIC allow the operation of any portable electronic device: a. On aircraft operated by an air carrier or commercial operator; or b. On any other aircraft while it is operated under IFR. Exceptions are: portable voice recorders, hearing aids, heart pace-makers, electric shavers or any other portable electronic device that the operator of the aircraft has determined will not cause interference with the navigation or communication system of the aircraft.
What documents must be on board an aircraft to make it legal for IFR flight? (14 CFR 91.9, 91.203)A irworthiness Certificate
R egistration Certificate
R adio station license (if conducting international operations)
O wner’s manual or operating limitations
W eight and balance data
How often is the GPS waypoint information database updated? (AC 90-94; FAA-H-8083-15)Every 28 days, as provided and maintained by the National Flight Data Center (NFDC).

IFR Flight Plan

Question Answer
When must a pilot file an IFR flight plan? (AIM 5-1-8)Prior to departure from within or prior to entering controlled airspace, a pilot must submit a complete flight plan and receive clearance from ATC if weather conditions are below VFR minimums. The pilot should file the flight plan at least 30 minutes prior to the estimated time of departure to preclude a possible delay in receiving a departure clearance from ATC.
When can you cancel your IFR flight plan? (AIM 5-1-14)An IFR flight plan may be canceled at any time the flight is operating in VFR conditions outside of Class A airspace. Pilots must be aware that other procedures may be applicable to a flight that cancels an IFR flight plan within an area where a special program, such as a designated TRSA, Class C airspace, or Class B airspace, has been established.
What is a composite flight plan? (AIM 5-1-7)It is a flight plan that specifies VFR operation for one portion of a flight, and IFR for another.
What type of aircraft equipment determines your “special equipment” suffix when filing an IFR flight plan? (AIM 5-1-8)a. Radar beacon transponder b. DME equipment c. TACAN-only equipment d. Area Navigation equipment (RNAV) — LORAN, INS e. Advanced Area Navigation equipment — Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) f. Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) authorization
The requested altitude on an FAA flight plan form (Block 7) represents which altitude for the route of flight — the initial, lowest, or highest? (AIM 5-1-8)Enter only the initial requested altitude in this block. When more than one IFR altitude or flight level is desired along the route of flight, it is best to make a subsequent request direct to the controller.
What are the alternate airport requirements? (14 CFR 91.169c)1-2-3 Rule — If from 1 hour before to 1 hour after your planned ETA at the destination airport, the weather is forecast to be at least 2,000-foot ceilings and 3-mile visibilities, no alternate is required. If less than 2,000 and 3 miles, an alternate must be filed using the following criteria: a. If an IAP is published for that airport, the alternate airport minimums specified in that procedure or, if none are specified, the following minimums — • Precision approach procedure: ceiling 600 feet and visibility 2 statute miles. • Nonprecision approaches: ceiling 800 feet and visibility 2 statute miles. b. If no IAP has been published for that airport, the ceiling and visibility minimums are those allowing descent from the MEA, approach, and landing under basic VFR.
What is the definition of the term “ceiling”? (P/CG)Ceiling is defined as the height above the Earth’s surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena reported as “broken,” “overcast,” or “obscuration,” and not classified as “thin” or “partial.”
What minimums are to be used on arrival at the alternate? (14 CFR 91.169c)If an instrument approach procedure has been published for that airport, the minimums specified in that procedure are used.

Route Planning

Question Answer
What are preferred routes and where can they be found? (P/CG)Preferred routes are those established between busier airports to increase system efficiency and capacity. Preferred routes are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory.
What are Enroute Low-Altitude Charts? (AIM 9-1-4)Enroute low-altitude charts provide aeronautical information for navigation under IFR conditions below 18,000 feet MSL. These charts are revised every 56 days.
What are Enroute High-Altitude Charts? (AIM 9-1-4)Enroute high-altitude charts are designed for navigation at or above 18,000 feet MSL. This four-color chart series includes the jet route structure; VHF NAVAIDs with frequency, identification, channel, geographic coordinates; selected airports; reporting points. Revised every 56 days.
What are “area charts”? (AIM 9-1-4)Area charts show congested terminal areas such as Dallas/Ft. Worth or Atlanta at a large scale. They are included with subscriptions to any conterminous U.S. set Low (Full set, East or West sets). Revised every 56 days.
Where can information on possible navigational aid limitations be found? (FAA-H-8083-15)NOTAMs as well as A/FDs will contain current limitations to NAVAIDs.
What other useful information can be found in the Airport/Facility Directory which might be helpful in route planning? (A/FD)The A/FD contains additional information for each of the seven regions covered, such as:
a. Enroute Flight Advisory Services — locations and communications outlets.
b. ARTCC — locations and sector frequencies.
c. Aeronautical Chart Bulletins — recent changes after publication.
d. Preferred IFR routes — high and low altitude.
e. Special notices — flight service station, GADO, Weather Service office phone numbers.
f. VOR receiver checkpoints — locations and frequencies.
What are NOTAMs? (AIM 5-1-3)Notices To Airmen (NOTAM) — Time critical aeronautical information, which is of either a temporary nature or not known sufficiently in advance to permit publication on aeronautical charts or in other operational publications, receives immediate dissemination via the National NOTAM System. It is aeronautical information that could affect a pilot’s decision to make a flight. It includes such information as airport or primary runway closures, changes in the status of navigational aids, ILS’s, radar service availability, and other information essential to planned en route, terminal, or landing operations.
What are the four groups of NOTAMs? (Order 7930.2)NOTAMs are classified into four groups:
a. (D) NOTAMs — Information that requires wide dissemination via telecommunication, regarding enroute navigational aids, civil public-use airports listed in the A/FD, facilities, services, and procedures.
b. FDC NOTAMs — Flight information that is regulatory in nature including, but not limited to, changes to IFR charts, procedures, and airspace usage.
c. POINTER NOTAMs — issued by a flight service station to highlight or point out another NOTAM; for example, an FDC NOTAM. These NOTAMs assist users in cross-referencing important information that may not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier.
d. MILITARY NOTAMs — these pertain to U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine, and Navy navigational aids/airports that are part of the NAS.
All (D) NOTAMs will have keywords contained within the first part of the text. What are several examples of these keywords? (Order 7930.2)RWY, TWY, RAMP, APRON, AD, OBST, NAV, COM, SVC,AIRSPACE, (U), or (O).
Where can NOTAM information be obtained? (AIM 5-1-3)a. AFSS/FSS b. DUATS vendors c. NTAP printed NOTAMs; not normally a briefing. Pilots must make a specific request for them during briefing. The NTAP is also available online from the FAA’s website.
Will an FSS briefer provide GPS NOTAMs as part of a standard briefing? (AIM 7-1-4)No. A pilot must request GPS NOTAMs during a preflight briefing from an AFSS briefer.