Inflammation and risk of CVD

bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-01-21 13:28


Question Answer
What is inflammation?local immune response to injury/damage/infection > redness >pain >swelling
What is the purpose of inflammation?to destroy infected or damaged tissue (phagocytes), stimulate repair
How does inflammation stimulate repair?>cytokines released by an immune response >endothelial cells and adipocytes stimulate liver to release acute phase proteins: CRP and fibrinogen
What happens when inflammation turns bad?dysfunction of the repair response , chronic release of inflam cytokines by immune cells > chronic low grade inflammation > doesnt switch off.
What are the causes of chronic low grade inflammation?long term activation by stimulus eg tissue damage or hypoxia > FFA and free radical uptake by immune cells causing them damage. > infection
What are the antinflammatory immune cells present around adipocytes?TReg cells which switch off inflammatory response and M2 macrophages
What are the proinflammatory immune cells present around adipocytes in +ve energy balance and inacitivity?Activated T cells and M1 macrophages both release cytokines
When do adipocytes recruit proinflammatory immune cells?When enlarged > less blood supply to enlarged adipocytes > hypoxia > feel under threat so release inflam cytokines.
What causes adipocytes to become enlarged?positive energy balance and physical inactivity
What are some examples of processes that occur during obesity?increase in proinflam adipokines (IL6) (TNF). - increased trigylcerides and LDLs - increased FFA which leads to TLR expression
What do the processes caused by obesity increase risk of?chronic low grade inflam - increased atherosclerosis, T2DM, neurodegeneration and tumour growth. - reduced functional capacity and reduced longevity.
Chronic inflammation increases risk of what diseases/conditions?CRC, Rheumatoid arthritis, CVD, CKD, T2DM, Alzheimers, COPD, Stroke, MS etc
What markers can be measured in chronic low grade inflam?IL eg IL6, TNF
How does vascular inflammation and increased adiposity lead to release of CRP and fibrinogen?Vasc.inflam and adipocyte > release of IL6, IL1 and TNF alpha. > travel to liver > releases CRP, fibrinogen (acute phase proteins)
What happens to the levels of IL6 in chronic inflammation?2-3 fold increase. chronic levels (consistently there)
What do raised levels of IL6 lead to?reduced: insulin sensitivity. increased: macrophage lipid uptake, endothelial stickiness, platelet clotting
What do raised levels of CRP and fibrinogen cause?increased: clot formation, fatty acid oxidation in immune cells, macrophage FA uptake, macrophage adhesive molecule expression
Why does exercise reduce inflammation?decreased:adipose tissue, inflammatory cells in adipose tissue, increased: endothelial function
How does skeletal muscle directly tackle inflammation?INCREASED IL6 ACUTELY - causes negative feedback pathway, acute release of IL6 stimulates IL10 cytokine release which overall decreases inflammation

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