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Infectious

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mikenakhla's version from 2016-05-18 02:38

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Question Answer
• Sandpaper rashscarlet fever
• Red rash and hypotensive, high temp, positive nikolsky signstaphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
• Honey colored crust. What is this and what are common organisms that cause itImpetigo, staph or strep commonly. More common in children with eczema b/c they scratch and shit.
• Herpesvirus 8Kaposi sarcoma
• Ingestion of undercooked meat, usually pork, in mexico or china or whatever that gives you diarrhea and GI stuff first then periorbital edema and myositis and fever weeks later. What is this and what lab findings might you find as well?trichinellosis. Eosinophilia common with possible elevated CK too
• Fever, headache, rash, significant myalgia, arthralgia, and retro orbital paindengue fever
• Progressive fever, then abdominal pain, then Salmon colored rash in 2nd week, hepatosplenomegalyTyphoid fever
• Filamentous, aerobic, gram positive bacteria that is partially acid fast that causes pulmonary or disseminated disease to the brain in immunocompromised people. What is this and how do you treat it?nocardia, use bactrim.
• Filmentous ANAEROBIC gram positive rod that is NOT acid fast and associated with sulfar granulesactinomyces
• Pink erythematous maculopapular rash that begins on face and spreads to the rest of the body with conjunctiitis and Forscheimer spotsRubella. Those spots are patchy erythema spots on soft palate. No specific treatment, just sx relief
• Persistently high fever for 5 days or more with conjunctivits, oral mucosal changeskawasaki
• Hand foot mouth syndrome is caused by this viruscoxsackievirus. Self limiting and resolves in 2-3 days
• Complication of kawasakicoronary artery aneurysms and MI
• What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome?herpes zoster oticus - manifestation of varicella zoster reactivation characterized by triad of ipsilateral facial paralysis, ear pain, and vesicles in auditory canal
• Organisms that can cause ventillator associated pneumoniapseudomonas, klebsiella, e-coli
• This fungal infection can cause skin and bone lytic lesions and resembles TB or histoplasmosisblastomycosis, found in great lakes, mississippi river valley, ohio river (like wisconsin apparently)
• This fungal infection causes granulomashistoplasmosis
• This fungal infection is endemic to the southwestern US and can involve skin, meninges, and bonescoccidiodomycosis
• Classic triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications in a newborntoxoplasmosis
• Treat an itchy nightime asshole in kids withalbendazole. This is enterobius vermicularis.
• Viral esophagitis in HIV patients - ovoid vescular ulcerations vs linear ulcersHSV, CMV
• Causes of atypical pneumonia?mycoplasma, chlamydia pneumoniae, legionella, coxiella, influenza. Most common cause is myocplasma in ambulatory setting.
• Which rash is typical of mycoplasma atypical pneumonia?erythema multiforme
• Indolent course, low grade fever with non productive cough and headache, sore throat, rash, nothing shows up on gram stainmycoplasma
• These two infections can cause severe intraocular inflammation and retinal necrosis in HIV patientsvaricella zoster and herpes simplex.
• This pathogen causes superinfection of viral URIs with necrotizing bronchopneumonia with small abscesses known as pneumatocoelesstaph aureus
• This is a chronic bronchopneumonia that produces dilated bronchi and is necrotizing and yields blood tinged purulent sputumbronchiectasis
• Primaquine is an antimalarial that doesn't kill what? Which types does it kill?schizont form of P falciparum. It does kill P ovale and P vivax
• Prophylaxis for chloroquine resistant P falciparum?mefloquine, atovaquone proguanil and doxycycline. Mefloquine is the agent of choice in pregnancy
• Osteomyelitis in the setting of sickle cell disease, think these two bugssalmonella and staph.
• Immunocompromised patient with fever, cough, dyspnea, possible hemoptysis, CT scan showing pulmonary nodules with "halo sign" or lesions with an "air crescent"aspergillosis
• Southeastern, mid atlantic, central US vs southwestern US and central/south america vs south central/north central USHistoplasmosis, coccidiodomycosis, blastomycosis
• 23 pneumonia vaccine alone is recommended for which adults?< 65 who are current smokers or have chronic lung disease, diabetes, liver disease. They'd get 13 when they're 65
• Pneumonia vaccine recommendations?13 at 65 then 23 12 months later, unless you're very high risk (CSF leaks, sickle cell, asplenia, immunocompromised, renal failure), then you get both <65 but same sequential order
• Endocarditis following dental procedures? Colon cancer? What about prosthetic valves?strep viridans (most likely mutans, bovis, epidermidis
• Acute prosthetic joint infection cause? Subacute?staph aureus, staph epidermidis or enterococci or propionibacterium
• Rubella vs measles?Measles has a higher fever, more gradual spread of rash from head to body, and no arthritis in measles.
• First line treatment for whooping coughmacrolides (azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin)
• Diagnosis of whooping cough?pertussis PCR of nasopharyngeal secretions and/or cultures
• Screening for HIV?HIV p24 antigen and antibody testing
• Kids, Bilateral conjunctivitis, cervical lyphadenopathy, rash, really high fever for 5 days or more. What is this and how do you treat it? Feared complication?kawasaki, give aspirin and IVIG to reduce coronary artery aneurysms
• Febrile neutropenia, what should you treat with?anti pseudomonal agent empirically while you get cultures (cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam)
• Most common predisposing factor for acute bacterial sinusitis?viral upper respiratory infection
• Multinucleated giant cells on Tzank Smear from fingers in a dentist?herpes infection causing hepatic whitlow
• Immunocompromised vs immunocompetent (but not immune yet) treatment for varicella exposure prophylaxis?vaccine for immunocompetent, Immunoglobulin for nonimmune immunocompromised who are asymptomatic
• Adrenal insufficiency and calcifications in adrenal glands?adrenal tuberculosis, common in developing countries.
• Pruritic elevated lesions on skin, often acquired through contact with sandcutaneous larva migrans
• Liver cysts with sheep breeder?echinococcosis, parasitic disease
• Pig farmers are at risk of what parasitic infection?neurocysticercosis
• Mayo salads (eg chicken, potato) then gastroenteritisstaph aureus
• Cheese and lunch meat then diarrhea and n/vlisteria
• Triad of polyarthralgia, tenosynoviis, and painless skin lesionsdisseminated gonococcal infection
• X ray finding with epiglottitis?"Thumb sign"
• Child presenting with fever, dysphagia, inability to extend neck, muffled voice, widened prevertebral space on x rayretropharyngeal abscess
• Grey colored pseudomembrane formation on throatdiptheria
• Distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis?orbital cellulitis will have pain with extraocular movements, opthalmoplegia (double vision), vision impairment, proptosis (protrusion of eyeball)
• Cellulitis is caused by which infectious agents most commonly? Treatment?Group A strep (eg pyogenes) and staph aureus. Treat with nafcillin or cefazolin, especially if they have systemic signs (fever, rigors, chills confusion etc)
• Brain abscess (looks like toxo) but in an imunocompetent person? Most common cause after sinus infection?Brain abscess caused by strep viridans. Other cause is staph aureus (after neurosurgery or penetrating trauma or other staph infection).
• Treatment for impetigo?mupirocin (topical abx) for limited skin involvement. Oral (cephalexin, dicloxacillin, or clinda) if extensive skin involvement. This is caused by S aurues or Group A strep (pyogenes), more commonly staph aureus
• Treat lyme in pregnant women withamoxicillin
• Prophylaxis for toxo? Treatment?prophylax with bactrim, treat with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine
• Patients with high suspicion of TB (eg upper lobe mass seen on CT with systemic symptoms and hemoptysis) shouldbe placed in respiratory isolation before doing anything
• Meningitis + seizures, think this. Meningitis + rash, think this.herpes, neisseria
• Treatment for viridans group streptococci (eg in infectious endocarditis)IV ceftriaxone or IV penicillin G
• This is a good antibiotic for community acquired pneumonia where macrolide resistance is suspecteddoxycycline
• This drug has significant anaerobic coverage and is commonly used for pneumonias with foul smelling sputum following aspirationclindamycin
• Anaerobic treatment "above the diaphragm"? Below?clindamycin, metronidazole
• HIV patient, pneumatoceles on X ray and perihilar granular opacities. What is this? What do pneumatoceles increase risk of?this is PCP pneumonia. Increases risk of pneumothorax
• Diagnosis of HIV?ELISA then western blot to confirm
• Patient with risky behaviors of HIV infection but negative test, what do you do?retest in 6 months b/c by then antibodies developed in 95% of patients.
• Silver stains (wright giemsa, giemsa, or methenamine silver) used to diagnosePCP
• Treatment for PCP if allergic or intolerance of bactrim?dapsone, pentamidine, atovaquone
• When do you start Myocbacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis? What drugs do you use?CD count less than 50 . Clarithromycin or azithromycin (rifabutin is an alternative)
• India ink prep with HIV patient, thinkcryptococcus neoformans meningitis
• Ring enhancing lesions with HIVtoxo, EBV/lymphoma, or cysticercosis/Taenia solium
• Can HIV moms breast feed?NO
• Drug of choice for CMV retinitis?valganciclovir. Second choices are ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir
• Most likely cause of pneumonia in HIV positive patient?Strep pneumonia (just like everyone else)
• These two pathogens cause chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients?cryptosporidium and isospora
• Herpes zoster infection in young adults, thinkpossible HIV infection. Also thrush might make you think the same thing
• HIV antibody testing in a newborn isunreliable b/c mom's antibodies can give you a positive test for the first 6 months of baby's life
• Most common cause of non purulent cellulitisGroup A strep. Staph aureus is most common cause of purulent cellulitis
• This looks like cellulitis but has raised, sharp borders and intense erythema, as opposed to flat borders of cellulitis. What is the infectious organism?erysipelas. Caused by strep pyogenes (aka group A strep)
• Treatment for scarlet fever?caused by Group A strep, treat with penicillin V or erythromycin, clindamycin if allergic
• High fever, sore throat, complete inability to swallow with ulcerative lesions on palate, tonsils, throat. Lesions can appear on palms and soles and then it's called hand foot mouth diseaseherpangina, caused by coxsackie A
• This is a superficial fungal infection of the skin that's scaly, itchy, raised border with central clearing. How do you treat it?this is tinea corporis aka ringworm, treat with topical antifungal (clomtrimazole or terbanifine)
• Athlete, skin to skin contact or mats and shitimpetigo, treat with mupirocin topically
• Major cause of blindness worldwide, presents with follicular conjunctivitis and neovascularization of the corneatrachoma, caused by chlamydia trachomatis. Treat with topical tetraycline or oral azithromycin immediately
• This can be congenital or acquired secondary to chronic middle ear infection. New onset hearing loss or draininage despite abx therapy, granulation tissue and skin debris seen on otoscopythis is cholesteatoma
• Uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis should be treated withoral amoxicillin-clavulanic (Augmentin)
• Most common causes of meningitis in a neonate? How do you treat?GBS, E coli, listeria. Treat with ampicillin and gentamicin
• Treatment for native valve endocarditis?oxacillin or nafcillin (if allergic use vanco) and aminoglyoside (gentamicin, amikacin, etc)
• Treatment for prosthetic valve endocarditis?vanco + gentamicin + cefepimie or carbapenem
• Treatment for pseudomonal infections?ticarillin or piperaillin with a beta lactamaze inhibitor (clavulanate, tazobactam)
• Treatment for mycoplasmaerythromyin, azithromycin
• Most common cause of pneumonia? Treatment options?strep pneumoniae. Treat with 1-macrolide, 2-doxy, 3-third generation cef (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime + doxy or macrolide), 4-fluoroquiolone with atypical coverage (levofloxacin or moxifloxacin)
• How do you recognize haemophilus influenza? Which adult population get this ? How do you treat? Looks like strep pneumo clinically but different on ___gram stain. Gram negative coccobacilli. Treat with amoxicillin or 2nd/3rd gen ceph. COPD get it
• Empyema and lung abscesses are relatively common with this pneumoniastaph aureus
• Common cause of hospital acquired pneumoniastaph aureus
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