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Industrial-Organizational Psychology

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hadupudo's version from 2015-08-22 20:15

Theories of Career Development and Career Choice

Question Answer
SuperKEY TERMS: "Self-Concept," "Career Maturity"

LIFE-SPACE, LIFE-SPAN THEORY: Job satisfaction, stability, and success depend on the extent to which a job matches the individual's "self-concept" (values, interests, personality). There are five stages of career development which occur over one's life span (growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement). The ability to accomplish the tasks of each stage is "career maturity." The "Life Career Rainbow" relates each of the career development life stages to major life roles that a person adopts over the life span (e.g., child, student, citizen, worker). It is useful for helping a career counselee recognize the impact of current and future roles and stages on career planning.

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HollandKEY TERMS: "RIASEC," "Differentiation"

A person will be more satisfied, have lower turnover, and will be more productive when their personality fits their work environment (personality-environment fit). There are 6 personality/work-environment types (RIASEC): Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional. A high level of "differentiation" occurs when a person has clear interests (evidenced by a high score on one of the six personality/work types and low scores on all the others), and, in this case, a good job-personality fit most accurately predicts job satisfaction and productivity.

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RoeKEY TERMS: "Personality," "Needs"

A person's "personality" determines the category of career they seek (Service, Business Contact, Organization, Technology, Outdoor, Science, General Cultural, Arts and Entertainment). A person's "needs" determine their preferred level of job complexity (ranging from unskilled to professional/managerial). Needs and personality are the result of both genetic factors and early parent-child relationships, which produce an orientation of being "toward others" (person-oriented) or "away from others" (not person oriented). People who are person oriented seek careers that involve contact with others (Business Contact, Service). People who are not person oriented choose careers that require minimal interpersonal contact (Science, Technology).

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Tiedeman and O'HaraKEY TERM: "Decision-Making," "Ego-Identity Development"

CAREER DECISION-MAKING MODEL: Vocational identity development is an ongoing process of "decision making" that is tied to ego identity development (Erikson's psychosocial stages) and involves a repetitive process of differentiation and integration. Three are two phases of career decision-making: (1) Anticipation (Exploration, Crystallization, Choice) and (2) Implementation and Adjustment (Induction, Reformation, Integration).

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KrumboltzKEY TERM: "Social-Learning Theory," "Instrumental & Associative Learning," "Task Approach Skills"

SOCIAL-LEARNING THEORY: Career decisions are a function of "social learning" (Bandura's Social Learning Theory) and "reinforcement." Career decisions are influenced by four factors: (1) Genetic endowment and special abilities; (2) Environmental conditions & events; (3) Insturmental & associative learning experiences; (4) Task approach skills. Unlike other theories of career development, this theory does not focus on matching a job with one's personality, but rather that a person is best served to continually learn and broaden their skills, interests, beliefs, values, work habits, and personal qualities so that they can create a satisfying life within a constantly changing work environment.

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Brosseau and DriverKEY TERM: "Career Concepts"

DECISION DYNAMICS CAREER MODEL: Career decisions are based on one of four "career concepts" or a vision of one's ideal career path (Linear, Expert, Spiral, and Transitory). Organizations should adopt a "pluralistic career culture" to support the various career concepts of their employees.

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Dawis and LofquistKEY TERMS" "Satisfaction," "Satisfactoriness"

THEORY OF WORK ADJUSTMENT: The "Theory of Work Adjustment" describes job satisfaction and tenure as the result of correspondence between the worker and his or her work environment on 2 dimensions: "Satisfaction" and "Satisfactoriness." A worker's satisfaction with the job depends on the degree to which the characteristics of the job correspond to his or her needs and values, while the worker's satisfactoriness depends on the extent to which the worker's skills correspond to the skill demands of the job.

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Theories and Models of Leadership

Question Answer
FiedlerCONTINGENCY THEORY: Leadership effectiveness is the result of an interaction between the "leader's style" and the "favorableness of the situation." A situation is more favorable if the leader has positive relationships with subordinates, if the task is highly structured, and if the leader has high position power (has ample rewards and incentives to offer subordinates). Low LPC leaders (leaders who describe their least preferred coworker in negative terms) are most effective in very unfavorable or very favorable situations; while high LPC leaders (leaders who describe their least preferred coworker in positive terms) are better in moderately favorable situations.
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Fiedler and GarciaCOGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY: Under low levels of stress, a leader's intelligence is more predictive of performance than her experience. Under high levels of stress, the leader's experience is more predictive of performance than intelligence. This is because stress interferes with the leader's ability to use her cognitive resources and she must instead rely on experience.
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HousePATH-GOAL THEORY: An effective leader helps carve a path for subordinates that allows them to fulfill personal goals through the achievement of group and organizational goals. There are four leaderships styles (Directive, Supportive, Participative, Achievement-Oriented), and the effectiveness of each style depends on the characteristics of the employees (ability and locus of control) and on the work environment (task structure, authority system). A Directive leadership style is optimal when workers are inexperienced and the task is unstructured. An Achievement-Oriented style is best whent he workers are experienced or prefer to have control and the task is difficult.
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Hersey and BlanchardSITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP: There are four leadership styles (Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating), and the effectiveness of each style depends on the subordinates' "job maturity." Job maturity is a function of the workers' (1) ability and (2) willingness to accept responsibility.
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Vroom and YagoVROOM-YETTON-YAGO NORMATIVE (DECISION-MAKING) MODEL: When a leader makes a decision she employs one of five "descision-making strategies" which vary in terms of the degree to which employees participate in the decision making (AI Autocratic, AII Autocratic, CI Consultative, CII Consultative, G Group). The model provides a decision tree to help leaders slecte the optimal strategy for their situation.
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McGregorTHEORY X and THEORY Y: Theory X Managers believe their employees dislike and avoid work. They employ a directive and controlling managerial style. Theory Y managers believe employees are capable of self-control and self-direction, and that work is "as natural as play." These managers are non-directive and non-controlling, and have more positive effects on employees and organizations.
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Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model

Question Answer
Telling LeaderLEADERSHIP STYLE: Directive; high task, low relationship.
MATCHING JOB MATURITY: Low in both ability and willingness
Selling LeaderLEADERSHIP STYLE: Directive but willing to explain reasons; high task, high relationship.
MATCHING JOB MATURITY: Low ability, high willingness
Participating LeaderLEADERSHIP STYLE: Low task, high relationship style.
MATCHING JOB MATURITY: High ability, low willingness
Delegating LeaderLEADERSHIP STYLE: Low task, low relationship style.
MATCHING JOB MATURITY: High in both ability and willingness
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Theories of Worker Motivation

Question Answer
MaslowNEED HIERARCHY THEORY: Motivation is the result of 5 basic instinctual needs (Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, Self-Actualization). Each need is "proponent" (motivating) only when the lower-order needs have been satisfied, and once it too has been satisfied it is no longer motivating.

Research evaluation of the need hierarchy theory:
-While motivating needs exist, there are not necessarily 5 distinct needs
-Needs are not activated in a specific order
-More than one need can be activated at any time
-Needs are still proponent even after they've been satisfied, though needs that have yet to be met may take precedence
-The importance of specific needs appears to be related to job level: Managers rate higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization needs as most important, whereas non-managers rate lower-level needs as most important

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AlderferERG THEORY: A reduction of Maslow's five motivating needs to three: (1) Existence, (2) Relatedness, (3) Growth. The ERG theory posits that the three motivating needs have a more flexible, back-and-forth progression, and that multiple needs can be activated at the same time.

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McClellandNEED THEORY: Posits that basic needs are culturally determined, and identified three basic needs through use of the Thematic Apperception Test: (1) Need for Achievement (nACH), (2) Need for Power, (3) Need for Affiliation. Employees with high nACH usually choose tasks of moderate difficulty and risk, apparently becasue success on these tasks depends more on effort than on uncontrollable factors. They also prefer frequent, concrete feedback and, though their motivation does not depend on money, they view monetary rewards as a source of feedback and recognition.

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HerzbergTWO FACTOR THEORY: A theory of both motivation and satisfaction that places satisfaction and dissatisfaction on two separate continua. Motivator factors (increased autonomy, responsibility, control, etc.) contribute to satisfaction and motivation when they are present; while hygiene factors (pay, pleasant working conditions) contribute to dissatisfaction when they're absent.

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Locke and LathamGOAL-SETTING THEORY: Employees will be more motivated to achieve goals when they have explicitly accepted those goals and are committed to them. In addition, productivity will increase when goals are (1) specific, (2) moderately difficult, and when (3) feedback is provided about progress toward achieving the goals. Goal-setting theory posits that when workers set their own goals, the goals are often more difficult than those that would be assigned by a supervisor.

Research evaluation of goal-setting theory:
-As indicated in goal-setting theory, productivity does increase when goals are moderately difficult, BUT only if the task is simple.
-If permitted to set their own goals, workers who have high nACH will in fact have a greater commitment to those goals, HOWEVER, workers low in nACH will have a greater commitment for goals that have been assigned to them.

Research on other aspects of goal-setting for group vs. independent work:
- When a task requires interdependent work of group members, group goals are more effective than (1) individual goals or (2) a combination of group & individual goals.
- When a task requires an employee to work independently, individual goals are more effective than group goals.

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AdamsEQUITY THEORY: A theory based on social comparison. Employees compare the ratio of their own inputs/outcomes to the input/outcome ratios of others who are performing similar jobs. When ratios are equal, they are comfortable, satisfied, and attempt to maintain the status quo. But when ratios are perceived as different (either better or worse), employees experience a state of inequity and try to make the situation equitable by either altering their inputs and/or outcomes, rationalizing the inequity, changing the comparison person, or leaving the situation.

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Porter, Lawler, VroomEXPECTANCY (VIE) THEORY: An employee's motivation is based on three factors: (1) Expectancy- Belief that effort will lead to successful task performance; (2) Instrumentality- Belief that successful task performance will lead to rewards; (3) Valence- Belief that the rewards are desirable.

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BanduraSOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION: Self-regulation of behavior involves four processes: (1) Goal setting- Goals represent a desired behavioral state and are influenced by past experiences and "self-efficacy" beliefs; (2) Self-Observation- The worker monitors her goal-related behaviors; (3) Self-Evaluation- The worker compares her current behavior to her behavioral goals; (4) Self-Reaction- The worker's reaction to her self-evaluation is either positive or negative based on whether her current behaviors are consistent with her behavioral goals. A positive self-reaction leads to increased self-efficacy, setting higher standards and future goals. A negative self-reaction leads to dissatisfaction and motivation to increase her effort, alter performance strategies, modify goals, or abandon the activity (depending upon her self-efficacy beliefs and attributions for the discrepancy).

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McGregorTHEORY X and THEORY Y: Theory X Managers believe their employees dislike and avoid work. They employ a directive and controlling managerial style. Theory Y managers believe employees are capable of self-control and self-direction, and that work is "as natural as play." These managers are non-directive and non-controlling, and have more positive effects on employees and organizations.

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TaylorSCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: The application of scientific method to study job productivity consists of 4 parts: (1) Standardizing the component parts of a job, (2) Selecting, training, and placing workers in jobs for which they are mentally and physically suited, (3) Fostering cooperation between supervisors and workers to minimize deviation from scientific methods of work, (4) Managers and workers assume responsibility for their own share of work. Time and Motion studies led to the conclusion that workers are motivated primarily by money.

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