Indian Paintings - other than early murals

liwacigo's version from 2017-03-22 16:52

Indian Paintings

Question Answer
Who mentions that paints, brushes and drawing boards are essential for any citizen ?Vatsyayana
Who speaks about 6 principles or limbs of paintings called sadangas of Paintings ?vatsyayana
Indian Miniature paintings have which influence ?Persian influence
The 6 limbs of paintings are ?Rup Bheda, Pramanam ,Bhava ,Lavan yogam /lavanyam ,Sadrisyam and VarnikaBhanga
What is Rup Bheda ?Knowledge of Appearance and subtle and stark differences of figures
What is Pramanam ?correct perception ,Measure and structure
What is Bhava ?Facial expression visualize the situation, emotions and express them in form of expressions
What is Lavan yogam /lavanyam ?Infusion of grace and Artistic representation
What is Sadrisyam ?Similarity
What is VarnikaBhanga ?manner of using brush and colour with individuality
What paintings can be seen in Ajanta caves ?Mural and Fresco paintings on the walls of the cave
In Ajanta caves how are emotions expressed ?Through hand postures - Even Animals and birds are shown with emotion
What are Fresco paintingson wet plaster present in Ajanta caves
What is tempera styleusing pigment - present in Ajanta cave
What is the theme of paintings in Ajanta caves ?Jataka stories having Buddhist influence
What is the theme of Ellora paintings ?Secular theme - Non religious despite being on temples
Bhag caves are atMadhya Pradesh - similiar to Ajanta

Prehistoric Paintings

Question Answer
Earliest evidence of paintings on rocks can be found atBhimpetka – 5000BC
Rock engravings are also called asPetroglyphs
Lakhudiyar caves is atUttarakhand - on banks of river suyal
Are paintings in Lakhudiyar caves superimposed ?Yes Earliest black and red ochre then white
Which is a famous painting in Lakhudiyar caves ?Scene of Hand linked dancing human
In Lakhudiyar caves Which colours are Man, Animal, Geometric patterns presented in ?white, black and red ochre
In Lakhudiyar caves Geometric patterns are mostly ?Wavy lines ,group of dots
Bhimbetka paintings belong to which period ?3 periods - Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Chalcolithic - Layers of Paintings found one over another – signals or warnings too present
In Bhimpetka what was used for WhiteLimestone
In Bhimpetka what was used for GreenChalcedony
In Bhimpetka what was used for Redhaematite (Geru in India)
In Bhimpetka what was used for Brushesnatural fiber
In Bhimpetka what was used for mixing materialAnimal fat/gum or resin to mix rock powder with water - These paintings remained for a long time – may be because of chemical reaction of oxide on surface of rocks
Are Bhimbetka paintings present only in occupied caves ?No also in unoccupied caves
In the Upper Palaeolithic paintings which colours were used to depict large animals like Bison, Elephant, Rhino’s, Tigers etc ?white, dark red and green lines
In the Upper Palaeolithic paintings Which colour was used for dancers and hunters ?Green mostly of dancers and Red mostly of Hunters
In the mesolithic paintings which colour became prominent ?Red
Were mesolithic paintings larger or smaller compared to upper Palaeolithic period ?Paintings smaller compared to upper Palaeolithic
Which themes were prominent in mesolithic paintings ?societal and community images and Animals predominant
In Chalcolithic paintings which colours are prominent ?green and yellow colour prominent
In Chalcolithic paintings which themes are prominentBattle scenes, Men riding horses and elephants, bow and Arrows - Reveal the association ,contact and Mutual exchange of requirement of cave dwellers of this area with settled agricultural communities of Malwa Plateau - less vividness and vitality
In chalcolithic paintings which technology can be seen ?Pottery and metal tools can be seen
Narsingad is inMadhya Pradesh Amarnath near the region of Narmada
Jogimara caves is inchattisgarh

Miniature Paintings Mughals

Question Answer
What is theme in Pala school of Painting ?Mostly manuscript paintings – Buddhist theme with Naturalism - but mostly limited to coconut and Banana trees - Lonely human figures found
Pala Paintings are Executed on ?Palm leaf or paper
Apabhramsa School Originated inMewad and Gujarat region of Rajastan
The theme of Apabhramsa School is ?Jain and Vaishnava theme
How are humans represented in Apabhramsa school ?Bulging eyes, pointed eyes, Double chin, stiff figures
What colours are used in Apabhramsa school ?Bright and gold colour
How are Animals and birds represented in Apabhramsa school ?As toys
Indian Mughal Paintings had which influence ?Indian, Persian as well as European
What is Fore sighting technique used in Mughal Paintings ?Under this technique objects are drawn in a way that they look smaller and closer than they really are
Babur patronised persian artist ?Sihzad
During Humayun period two artists were brought from persia who were ?Abdus Samad/Abd al samad and Mir saeed ali
Who established different departments for paintings and Karkhanas were developed and prizes were given ?Akbar
Who were famous contemporary painters of Akbar ?Daswant, Basawn and Keshav
Akbar era paintings features3D figures - use of fore sighting technique and calligraphy in paintings
Akbar era common themeFares and Festivals
Akbar era Famous PaintingsTutinama, hamzanama, Gulistan, Darab Nama, Khamsa of Nizami, Jami’s Baharistan
When did Mughal paintings reach its climaxJehangir period - Was himself an artist and had his own workshop
Jehangir was aNaturalist – preferred pictures of Flora and Fauna
Jehangir Emphasised onPortrait painting
Jehangir period Paintings featureshave decorated margins
Jehangir period Paintings typeMostly Miniature paintings
Jehangir period Paintersustad mansoor
Jehangir period PaintingsMaulana Do Pyaza or Mulla_Do-Piyaza , Animals such as Zebra, Cock and turkey
Shah Jahan paintings colourExcessive use of gold , Silver and bright colours in paintings
Shah Jahan paintings feeaturesReduced liveliness (Artificial and natural) - Pencil sketching widely used
Who discouraged paintings and hence dispersion of artists from Mughal courts was found and After this development of regional paintings started ?Aurangazeb

Regional Miniature Paintings

Question Answer
What are schools under Rajastani style ?Mewad or Ragamala school, Kishangad school, Bundi school and Jaipur school
Rajastani paintings have which influence ?Persian -Hence Mughal + Indian + Small amount of European influence
What are themes of Rajastani paintings ?Radha Krishna, Nayak Nayika and hunting scenes
Mewad School also known asRagamala Paintings
Ragamala Paintings were fusion ofPainting, Poetry and music – Unique to India - ie Visual + Performing art
Famous Ragamala paintersSahibuddin of Mewad , Ruknuddin of Bikaner
Ragamala paintings Started in19th, 17th C
Some types of Ragamala paintingsPahari Ragamala, Rajasthan / Rajput Ragamala ,Deccan Ragamala and Mughal Ragamala
The Ragamala Paintings depict not only the ragas but theirwives (Raginis) and Numerous sons ( Ragaputras) and Daughters ( Ragaputris)
Six Principal ragas present in the Ragamala areBhairava, Dipika (Deepak), Sri, Malkauns, Meghna and Hindole
Six Principal ragas are meant to be sung at 6 reasons of the year which wereSummer, Monsoon, Autumn, Early winter, Winter and Spring
How are ragamala paintings personified ?By colour, Mood, a verse describing the story of a hero, heroine (Nayak, Nayika) attaching deities to Raga eg Bhairava /Bhairavi to Shiva , Sri to Devi etc
Do Ragamala paintings also describe the season and time of day and night in which a particular raga must be sungYes
Kishangad school ThemePortraits or love scenes of Radha and Krishna
Kishangad school coloursLiberal use of gold - Use of Primary colours
Kishangad school representation of humansFace of male and Female are similar – narrow eye brows - Lotus petal shaped eyes - Krishna is painted in blue
Kishangad school Famous PaintersNihal Chand, Raja sawant Singh
Kishangad school Famous Paintings Bani Thani (India’s Mona Lisa)
Kishangad school typeMiniature Paintings
Bundi school of painting regionBundi located in Aravalli range
Bundi painting themesScenes of Pleasure - loves scenes - Harem scenes under Jahangir
Bundi painting coloursUse of both primary and secondary colours - Use of gold
Bundi painting typeMostly Miniature Paintings
Distinct features of Bundi schoolHuman faces are round with pointed nose - Colours of sky are pained in different colours and mostly a ribbon of red colour is visible in the sky - Paintings of local vegetation in detail
Pahari School regionIn Kashmir, Himachal, Uttarakhand and hill areas of Punjab
Who discovered Pahari paintings in Kangra valleyLord Metcafe discovered - After the discovery Rajastani School classified as Rajastani and Pahari school
Pahari School influenceBoth Mughal and Rajasthani influence
Common themeLove scenes of Radha and Krishna, Boyhood Pranks of Krishna and Delicate graces of Indian Womanhood
Kangra school themeLove scenes of Radha and Krishna
Who was patron of Kangra school ?Maharaja Sansar Chand
Speciality of Kangra schoolTranslated Poetry in to Painting
Thangka School is famous in which region ?Ladakh region
Which religion influence can be seen in Thangka School ?Buddhist influence (Chinese influence)
Which material is highly used ib Thangka school ?Silk
Thangka School paintings were mostly of what type ?Miniature Paintings
Tanjore school eraAncient to 9th C
Tanjore school were developed by ?Chola rulers
Tanjore school ThemesHindu Gods and Goddesses, Pictures of Child Krishna dominates
How are figures expression on Tanjore School ?Smiling figures in portraits
What colours are used in Tanjore school ?Liberal use of gold and Complete concentration on decoration
Tanjore school paintings are mostly made of ?Glass
Mysore school ThemeHindu gods and Goddesses - They had 2 or more figures .One was larger than the other
Mysore school used Gesso plate which ismixture of Zinc oxide and Arabic gum
How are colours in Mysore school ?Use of muted /not so bright colours
Mysore school era ?17th to 19th C

Petroglyphs in India

Question Answer
Madhya PradeshBhimbetka rock shelters
KarnatakaKupgal on Dolerite Dyke near Bellary
KeralaEdakkal Caves, Wayanad District
Tamil NaduPerumukkal, Tindivanam District and Kollur, Villupuram
TripuraUnakoti near Kailashahar
GoaUsgalimal rock engravings, Kushavati river banks
NW Indian HimalayaLadakh
UttarakhandKumaon hills

Folk Paintings

Question Answer
Madhubani painting regionMithila region in Bihar
Madhubani painting Theme Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Mythological , wedding ,exotic ,Royal court scenes and Flora and Fauna - Use of Symbols instead of things in paintings
Who makes Madhubani paintings ?Exclusive monopoly of Woman artists
On which materials are Madhubani paintings amde ?Initially executed on Mud walls ( Ie Mural Paintings) but after 1967 these were executed even on card paper and sold them for commercial purpose (Miniature paintings)
Why was Madhubani painting forced to commercialise ?In 1967 there was a famine in the region – Hence forced to commercialise
How are items represented in a Madhubani painting ?No space is left empty in the painting (Gaps are filled by paintings of animals ,Flora and Fauna and Geometrical designs)
How is outline drawn in Madhubani painting ?The outline is directly drawn with a branch without any preliminary sketching
What materials are used in Madhubani paintings ?Use of Coloured rice or Aripan - Use of Indigenous or Natural colours at the Initial stage – using leaves ,Flowers and Herbs
Who promoted Madhubani globally ?Sila devi
Warli paintings region and typeTribal Painting from Maharashtra - Only Mural Paintings
Warli paintings ThemeDaily life scenes
Warli paintings use which materialsCow dung for background and Rice paste for Painting
Manjusha Paintings are from which region ?Bhagalpur region of Bihar
Manjusha Paintings are also known asAngika art (Anga one of Mahajanpadas) and Snake paintings – Snake Motif always present
On which canvas are Manjusha Paintings made ?On bores of Jute and Paper

Modern and other Indian Paintings

Question Answer
Pithoro paintings can be seen at ?Rajasthan and Gujarat
Patna Kalam paintings have which influence ?Mughal Influence
Who paints Patna Kalam paintings ?Dominated by male artists unlike Madhubani
Patna Kalam paintings ThemeExclusively Common man and Scenes of Daily life
Bazaar Paintings have which influence ?European influence (Roman and Greek)
Bazaar Paintings ThemeEveryday Bazaar and religious themes - Figures of Indian Gods and Goddesses with more than 2 arms
Bazaar Paintings are from which region ?Bengal Bihar region
Who is called the Rafael of the East ?Raja Ravi Verma
What are some famous paintings of Raja Ravi Vermalady in the moon light and Ravana Kidnapping Sita
What are features of Bengal School ?Use of Simple colours, Paintings had reactionary approach, Dominant Black Ink lines, Sense of Rhythm,Small size, linked with his writings(Rabindranath Tagore), Spirituality in images
Who is a famous painter of Bengal school ?Abindranath Tagore - Arabian Night stories
What is Cubist Style of Painting ?Under this style objects are broken, analysed and reassembled in an abstract form - Perfect balance between line and colour
Who is famous cubist painter ?MF Hussain them - Personification of Romance
What is favourite motif in Cubist Style of Painting ?Horse