Immunology Study questions overall

dogenisu's version from 2016-03-08 14:54


Question Answer
Clonal expansion and differentiation of naive T cells to effector T cells depends on the activation of the transcription factors _____ through a ZAP-70-mediated signal transduction pathway.AP-1 NFkB NFAT
Fos, a component of the transcription factor AP-1, is activated during T-cell signaling by a process involving a GTP-binding protein called_______.Ras
_____ is a second messenger in the T-cell signaling pathway leading to the activation of NFAT.IP3 (inositol triphosphate)
Co-stimulatory signals induced through CD28 causesactivation of Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor activation of protein tyrosine kinase Lck
T helper 2 cytokines exert what kind of effects?B cell differentiation
T helper 1 cytokines exert what kind of effects?B cell differentiation, macrophage activation, production of opsonizing antibodies
What is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in T cell activation culmunating in T cell proliferation and differentiation?ZAP-70
Binding of ____ to ____ induces T cell proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells. IL-2; the high-affinity IL-2 receptor
Factors thought to have an influence on the differentiation of CD4 T cells into either T helper 1 or 2 include the cytokines made during the preceding innate immune response the type of APC interacting with T cell the cytokines made by the APC interacting with the T cell the number of specific peptide:MHC complexes presented by the APC
Expression of IFN-gamma is induced in a CD4 t helper 1 cell under the direction of the transcription factorT-bet
IL-4 is induced in a CD4 T helper 2 cell under the direction of the transcription factor _____GATA-3
Tuberculoid leprosy is characterized by a _____-type response where patients_______.Th1; usually survive
Cytokine receptors are associated with cytoplasmic protein kinases called ______, which become activated when the cytokine receptors bind to their respective cytokinesJAKs
What is not produced by Cytotoxic T cells?CD40 ligand (CD40L)
What is not produced by TH1 cells?IL-10
What is not produced by TH2 cells?IFN-gamma
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are _____ that are phosphorylated by _______. transcription factors; JAKs
T/F: Plasma cells generated during a secondary immune response have longer life-spans than those made during a primary response.False
In which ways do memory B cells active in a secondary immune response differ from the naive B-cell population activated in a primary immune response? - The antibody produced is of higher affinity in a secondary immune response. - The level of somatic hypermutation is higher in a secondary immune response.. - Memory B cells express higher levels of MHC class II molecules
A memory T cell can be distinguished from a naive T cell on the basis of elevated levels of _____.CD44 and CD45RO
Naive T cells do not expressCD25, IFN-gamma, FasL
Cross-linking ________ and ________ on a ______ B cell by a specific antigen:IgG complex renders the B cell anergicB cell receptor; FCgammaRIIB1; naive
All NK cells express: NKG2D, CD56
The B cell co receptor is composed of: CR2 (CD21), CD19, CD81
What describes thymus-independent (TI)-2 antigens-they contain repetitive epitopes on the surface of microorganisms -they cause dense cross-linking of B-cell receptors and co-receptors, leading to B-cell proliferation and differentiation
The process that drives an increase in antibody affinity for antigen is known as _____Affinity Maturation
Select the correctly matched human cytokine; consequence pair. (IL-4, IL-10, plasma cell, memory b cell)IL-4memory B cell and IL-10plasma cell
area of developing clonally selected B cells within a lymphoid follicleGerminal Center
Professional Antigen Presenting cell for Viruses?Dendritic Cell
Activated Tc cells differentiate into effector cells known as?cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Macrophages have two major innate responses, which are?Singaling and phagocytosis
What type of differentiated cell secretes immunoglobulins?Plasma cell
Antibody diversity created by different H and L chains is called?Combinatorial Association
Process that selects for antibodies that bind more tightly to the pathogen is?Somatic hypermutation
T cells undergo 2 rounds of clonal selection in the Thymus. They are?Positive then negative selection
Antibody isotype that activates the complement system is the?IgM
Antibody isotype that serves as a good opsonin is the?IgG
During a primary response, which antibody is produced more readily?IgM
During a repeated exposure to an antigen, which antibody is produced more readily?IgG
What is a dividing B cell undergoing hypermutation found in the germinal center called?Centroblast
Term for an antigen that does not require T cell assistance?Thymus-independent antigen
What does ADCC stand for?Antibody-dependent Cell mediated Cytotoxicity
What does ITAM stand for?Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif
CD81 + CR2(CD21) + CD19 = what?B cell co-receptor
What are B cells that are located in the dark zone of the germinal center called?Centroblasts
Cells in the germinal center that have a membrane bound antigen are called?Follicular Dendritic Cells
T cells that inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocytes are called?Tregulatory cells
Which mast cell product enhances Th2 cell response?IL-4
TI antigen is what?Thymus independent antigen. Antigen that elicits an antibody response without the need for a T cell. They are usually large carbohydrates with repetitive epitopes.
Where are ITAMs found?Tails of CD3, zeta chains of TCR, and some Fc receptors.
How do dendritic cells stimulate the adaptive immune response?Antigen processing and presentation to Th and Tc cells
Where are MHC Class I molecules found?All nucleated cells.
Where are MHC Class II molecules found?Only on professional APCs
What are the professional APCs?Macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes
Can IgM opsonize?No
What isotypes are always on naive B cells?IgM and IgD
First antibody secreted by plasma cells?IgM
What is positive selection?The T cell receptor (TCR) must recognize self MHC Class I and Class II molecules
What is negative selection?T cell receptors that bind too strongly to self antigens are forced to undergo apoptosis
How does T cell negative selection prevent B cells from reacting against self antigens?Since B cells require Th cells to recognize the same antigen, removal of Th cells that react with self antigens means that B cells with self antigens will never be able to be activated.