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Immunology - Final - Part 5

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davidwurbel7's version from 2015-12-15 20:50

Generation of Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanisms

Question Answer
Antigens that stimulate Cell-Mediated Immunity are mainlyIntracellular
Secreted proteins that stimulate and/or regulate the responses of immune cells ---> over 100 have been identifiedChemokines
Molecules that allow communication between leukocytesInterleukins
Mediates host inflammatory responsesIL-1
Activates T (helper) , B, CTLs , and NK cellsIL-2
Interferon that increase activity of macrophagesIFN-γ
Interferons that protects against viral infectionsIFN-α, IFN-β
Attract leukocytes to sites of infectionChemokines
Stimulated by ingestion of antigen. Larger and more effective phagocytes. Enhanced ability to eliminate intracellular bacteria, virus-infected and cancerous cellsMacrophage
Lymphocytes that destroy virus-infected and tumor cells. Not specific. Do not require antigen stimulation. Not phagocytic, but must contact cell in order to lyse itNK Cells
CD40 is expressed on this type of cellMacrophage
CD40L is expressed on this type of cellCD4+ Effector T Cell
In cell-mediated immunity, macrophages are activated by these two signals - _______ and IFN-γCD40L - CD40
In cell-mediated immunity, macrophages are activated by these two signals - CD40L - CD40 and ______IFN-γ
Mediates host inflammatory responsesIL-1
Activates TH, B, TC, and NK cellsIL-2
Increase activity of macrophages (IFN-γ) and protect against viral infections (Type I IFNs: IFN-α, IFN-β)Interferons
Attract leukocytes to sites of infectionChemokines
An in vitro assay of cell-mediated immunity, the bacteria are actually killed byActivated Macrophages
Defend against bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells and are inaccessible to antibodies. Fungi, protozoa, and helminths, Cancer cells, Transplanted tissueT Cell
Produces IFN-γ and IFN-α which activates macrophagesTH1 Helper T Cells
Produces IFN-γ and IFN-α which activates macrophagesCD8+ T Cells
CD40 is located onMacrophages
CD40L is located onCD4+ T Cell
CD40L-CD40 interactions are responsible for activation ofMacrophages
T cells that recognize antigen without costimulation may become unresponsive to subsequent exposure to antigen; this state of unresponsiveness is calledAnergy
Microbes and cytokines produced during innate immune responses to microbes, induce expression of this on the APCsB7 Costimulators
The B7 costimulators are recognized by this receptor on naive T cellsCD28 Receptor
IL-2 stimulates receptors on the same cell that produces the IL-2Autocrine Stimulation (Auto-stimulation)
IL-2 receptor α chainCD25
IL-2 receptor (low affinity)IL-2Rβγc
IL-2 receptor (high affinity)IL-2Rαβγc
This converts IL-2R receptor from a low affinity receptor (IL-2Rβγc) into a high affinity receptor (IL-2Rαβγc)CD25
Cytokine action that causes B cells to switch to producing IgEIL-4
Cytokine responsible for activation of eosinophilsIL-5
Cytokine that inhibits T cell activation and differentiation of regulatory T cellsTGF-β
Two or more TCRs need to be __________ to initiate TCR - cell receptor signalsCross-Linked
Regions of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and become docking sites for other signaling moleculesImmunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motifs (ITAMs)
This is composed of three polypeptide chains, named delta, ε, and γ, arranged in two pairsCD3
Accessory molecule receptor for B7 molecules that delivers inhibitory signalsCTLA-4 (CD152)
Inhibitory signals who's role is to shut off T cell responsesCTLA-4 (CD152)
This molecule acts like a vehicle governor preventing T cell from over production and response to an activation signalCTLA-4 (CD152)
Activated CD4+ T cell that have differentiated into effector cells secrete IFN-γ and express this receptor on its cell membraneCD40L
Activated CD4+ T cell receptor CD40L binds this present on macrophages or B lymphocytesCD40
Helper T cell subset that activates phagocytes by producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ)TH1
Help CD8+ T cells differentiate into active CTLs and stimulate B cells to class switch from IgM to the production of IgG1 and IgG3TH1
TH1 secrete this to help CD8+ T cells differentiate into active CTLs and stimulate B cells to class switch from IgM to the production of IgG1 and IgG3IFN-γ
Helper T cell subset that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies and induce “class switching” from IgM to IgETH2
TH2 secrete this that stimulates B cells to produce antibodies and induce “class switching” from IgM to IgEIL-4
Type of T cell that are mostly CD8+, Recognize antigens on the surface of all cells - Kill host cells that are infected with viruses or bacteria. Recognize and kill cancer cells. Recognize and destroy transplanted tissue. Release proteins called granzymes and perforin which activate apoptotic pathways in the infected cells. Undergo apoptosis when stimulating antigen is goneCytotoxic T (TC) lymphocytes
Expressed on activated CTLs that engages Fas on the surface of target cells and induces apoptosisFasL
FasL is expressed on activated CTLs which engages this on the surface of target cells, and induces apoptosisFas
Mutations in the Fas gene cause systemic autoimmune disease in humans, called thisAutoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).
Transcription factor that promotes TH1 polarizationSTAT4 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 4)
This binds to CD4+ cells and activates STAT4 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4)IL-12
This released by NK cells induces T-bet, a transcription factor that regulates lineage commitment in TH1 helper cellsIFN-γ
IFN-γ released by NK cells induces this transcription factor that regulates lineage commitment in TH1 helper cellsT-bet
IL-4 activates the transcription factorSTAT6
The differentiation of antigen stimulated T cells to the TH2 subset is dependent on this cytokineIL-4
This Helper T cell differentiation occurs in response to allergens and helminths which cause chronic T cell stimulation without strong innate immune responsesTH2
STAT6 upregulates this second transcription factorGATA-3
This receptor has the higher affinity for B7 moleculesCTLA-4
IFN-γ upregulates this cytokine which increases T cell responseB7
IL-12 > STAT4 > STAT1 > IFN-γ > T-Bet is the progression for this cell lineTH1
IL-4 > STAT6 > GATA-3 is the progression of this cell lineTH2
TGF-β > IL-6 > IL-23 is the progression of this cell lineTH17
Recruits monocytes to the site of infectionTH1
Recruits eosinophil to the site of infectionTH2
Recruits monocytes and neutrophils to the site of infectionTH17
This cytokine from TH2 cells also inhibit macrophage activation and TH1-mediated reactionsIL-10
This cytokine made by TH17 cells functions to maintain epithelial barrier function in the intestinal tract and other tissuesIL-22
IL-22 made by this subset helper cells functions to maintain epithelial barrier function in the intestinal tract and other tissuesTH17
An autocrine growth and differentiation cytokine for TH2 cellsIL-4
This subset of helper T cells produce the cytokine IL-17, which induces production of chemokines and other cytokines from various cells, and these recruit neutrophils and monocytes into the site of inflammationTH17
TH17 produce this cytokine which induces production of chemokines and other cytokines from various cells, and these recruit neutrophils and monocytes into the site of inflammationIL-17
TH1 cells and activated macrophages meditates this type of hypersensitivityDelay-Type Hypersensitivity
An activated macrophage is also known as thisEpithelioid Cell
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