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Immunology - Final - Part 3

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davidwurbel7's version from 2015-12-15 20:23

Antigen Presentation

Question Answer
Initiated when the antigen receptors of lymphocytes recognize antigensAdaptive Immune Responses
MHC class I antigen will be presented to this CD class of T cellsCD8+ T Cells
MHC class II antigen will be presented to this CD class of T cellsCD4+ T Cells
Peptides bind to the MHC molecules byAnchor Residues
Peptides bind to the MHC molecules by anchor residues, which attach the peptides to these in the MHC moleculesPockets
These cells can see only peptide fragments of protein antigens, and only when these peptides are presented by specialized peptide display molecules on host cellsT Cells
These cells can recognize a wide variety of macromolecules including proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small chemicals in soluble or cell surface-associated form.B Cells
The ability to recognize some residues of peptide antigen and also recognizes residues of the MHC molecule that is displaying that peptideDual Specificity
This cell type has dual specificityT Cells
In every individual, different clones of T cells can see peptides only when these peptides are displayed by that individual's MHC molecules.MHC Restriction
These genes are codominantly expressed, meaning that the alleles inherited from both parents are expressed equally and are highly polymorphic.MHC Genes
In the skin, the epidermal dendritic cells are calledLangerhans Cells.
T cells that have been activated by an APC and travelled to the site of infection. At the site of infection, macrophages present antigens to these same T cells, which then activate the macrophage to kill the microbesEffector T Cell
Cells infected with intracellular microbes, such as viruses, are ingested (captured) by professional APCs, and the antigens of the infectious microbes are broken down and presented in association with the MHC molecules of the APCs along with costimulator B7Cross-Presentation
This class of molecules are expressed on all nucleated cellsMHC Class I
This class of molecules expressed mainly on dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytesMHC Class II
Called HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C in humans, and each person inherits one set of these genes from each parentMHC Class I
Physiologic function is to display peptides derived from protein antigens to be recognized by the T cell receptor (TCR) on antigen-specific T lymphocytesMHC Molecules
Inherits one pair of HLA-DP genes (DPA1 and DPB1, encoding the a and b chains), one pair of HLA-DQ genes (DQA1 and DQB1, encoding the a and b chains), one HLA-DRa gene (DRA1), and one or two HLA-DRb genes (DRB1 and DRB3, -4 or -5)MHC Class II
A heterozygous individual can inherit six, seven or eight _______ allelesMHC Class II
This is the MHC gene that can be inherited as one from each parent, one from one parent and two from the other parent or two from each parentMHC Class II DRb
The set of MHC alleles present on each chromosome is calledMHC Haplotype
Binding domain composed of a1 and a2 subunitsMHC Class I
A peptide-binding cleft, or groove, that is large enough accommodate peptides of 8 to 11 amino acids is found onMHC Class I Peptide-Binding Cleft
This subunit of the alpha chain binds to CD8Alpha 3
The a3 subunit of the alpha chain bind toCD8
The amino-terminal a1 and a2 domains of the molecule formMHC Class I Peptide-Binding Cleft
A peptide-binding cleft, or groove, that is large enough accommodate peptides of 10 to 30 amino acids is found onMHC Class II Peptide-Binding Cleft
Binding domain composed of a1 and b1 subunitsMHC Class II
This subunit of the beta chain binds to CD4b2
The b2 subunit of the beta chain bind toCD4
The amino-terminal a1 and b1 domains of the molecule formMHC Class II Peptide-Binding Cleft
Class I MHC molecules acquire peptides and display those peptides fromCytosolic Proteins (Endogenous)
Class II MHC molecules display peptides acquired from proteins inIntracellular Vesicles (Exogenous)
Class I MHC molecules bind to the antigen that they will present in theER
Class II MHC molecules bind to the antigen that they will present in theEndocytic Vesicle
These cells internalize proteins that specifically bind to the cells‘ antigen receptors (surface antibodies). After internalization into APCs by these pathways, the microbial proteins enter acidic intracellular vesicles, called endosomes, endocytic vesicles, or phagosomes, which may fuse with lysosomesB Lymphocytes
Which cell type responses to antigens presented by MHC Class ICD8+ T Cells
Which cell type responses to antigens presented by MHC Class IICD4+ T Cells
Which molecule is involved with transport of peptides and loading of MHC molecules in the Class I pathwayTAP (Transporter Antigen Processing)
Which molecule is involved with transport of peptides and loading of MHC molecules in the Class II pathwayInvariant Chain (with DM)
The invariant chain (Ii) contains a sequence that binds tightly to the peptide-binding cleft so the cleft of the newly synthesized class II molecule is occupied and unable to bind endogenous peptides in the ERCLIP
The CLIP is removed from the peptide-binding cleft by this class II-like protein which also assists in the binding of antigen to the peptide-binding cleftHLA-DM
One antigen may generate many peptides, only one or two may bind the MHC molecules present in the individual. Therefore, only these peptides stimulate immune responsesImmunodominant Epitopes
The peptides that are produced by ubiquitination of cytoplasmic proteins within a proteasomes are transportedTAP (Transporter Antigen Processing)
The peptides that are transported by the TAP are transported to this cellular structureER
Removing newly synthesized MHC molecules from the ER. Inhibiting the transcription of MHC genes. Blocking peptide transport by TAP are three strategies utilized by these pathogens to evade innate immune responseViruses
T cell recognition to MHC-associated peptides ensures that T cells see and respond only to cell-associated antigensT Cell Restriction
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Antigen Recognition

Question Answer
Even though different clones recognize different antigens, the antigen receptors transmit this fundamentally the sameBiochemical Signals
Domain that recognize antigen that these vary between clones of lymphocytesVariable (V) Regions
Domain are required for structural integrity and effector functions and are relatively conserved among all clonesConstant (C) Regions
These are either membrane-bound antigen receptors on B cells or secreted proteinsAntibodies
Exist only as membrane receptors on T cellsT Cell Receptors (TCR)
Concentrated sequence variability within the V regionsComplementarity-Determining Regions (CDRs)
Molecules that transduce the signal in antibodiesIg-alpha and Ig-beta
Molecules that transduce the signal in T cellsCD3 and Zeta
Collection of antigen receptors and signaling molecules in B cellsB Cell Receptor (BCR) Complex
Collection of antigen receptors and signaling molecules in T cellsT Cell Receptor (TCR) Complex
This is the bringing together of two or more receptors brings the associated signaling proteins of the receptor complexes into close proximitySignaling Cross-Linking
Effector molecules of humoral immunityAntibodies
Effector cells of cell-mediated immunityT Lymphocytes
Composed of four polypeptide chains - two identical heavy (H) chains and two identical light (L) chains, with each chain containing one variable (V) and one constant (C) regionAntibodies
Each light chain attaches to one heavy chain, and the two heavy chains are attached to each other by these type of bondsDisulfide Bonds
The greatest variability within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs is located at the junction of the V and C regions).CDR3
IgG and IgM can activate thisComplement
IgG can also activate FcγRIIIA receptors which can trigger this in phagocytesPhagocytosis
Digestion of an antibody with this protease produces two Fab and one Fc regionPapain
Digestion of an antibody with this protease produces one F(ab’)2Pepsin
This antibody has a hinge and three constant H chain regions. One constant region is above the hinge (CH1) and two past the hinge (CH2 and CH3)IgG
This antibody does not have a hinge and four constant H chain regions (CH1, CH2, CH3 and CH4)IgM
This antibody have a half-life of 23 daysIgG
This antibody has a serum concentration of 13.5 mg/mLIgG
This antibody has a pentamer structureIgM
This antibody can have a monomer, dimer or trimer structure but is usually a dimerIgA
B cell ticket out of the bone marrowIgD
Responsible for allergies and also respond to parasitesIgE
Activates complimentIgM
This is the most abundant immunoglobin in the bodyIgG
This is the most stable immunoglobin in the bodyIgG
This antibody has an H chain composed of a1 or a2IgA
This antibody has an H chain composed of dIgD
This antibody has an H chain composed of eIgE
This antibody has an H chain composed of γ1, γ2, γ3, γ4IgG
This antibody has an H chain composed of μIgM
The two types of light chains, kappa (k) and lambda (l), differ in their C regions but not in function. Each B cell expresses either kappa or lambda, but not both Antibodies
The strength with which one antigen-binding surface binds to one epitope of an antigen is theAffinity
The sum of the strength of binding of all antigensAvidity
The parts of antigens recognized by antibodies areEpitopes (Determinants)
Antigenic determinants recognized based on sequenceLinear Epitopes
Antigenic determinants recognized based on shapeConformational Epitopes
This increase in antigen-binding strength during a secondary immune response is calledAffinity Maturation
B cells and the myeloma that are fused and selected with the drugHybridomas
Retention of the antigen-binding V regions of the mouse monoclonal antibody and replacing the rest of the Ig with human Ig"Humanized" Antibodies
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