Immunology - Final - Part 2

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-12-15 20:09


Question Answer
Resistance to disease, specifically infectious diseaseImmunity
The collection of cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate resistance to infectionsImmune System
The coordinated reaction of the cells and molecules to infectious microbesImmune Response
The cause of many inflammatory diseases with serious morbidity and mortalityAbnormal Immune Response
Mediates the initial protection against infectionsInnate Immunity
Does not react against noninfectious foreign particlesInnate Immunity
Develops more slowly and mediates the later, even more effective defense against infectionsAdaptive Immunity
System consists of lymphocytes and their products, such as antibodiesAdaptive Immunity
Express receptors that specifically recognize antigens produced by microbes as well as noninfectious moleculesLymphocytes
Cellular components of this immune response are epithelium, neutrophils, macrophages, complement, NK cellsInnate Response
Cellular components of this immune response are APC cells, B-cells, T-cells, Effector cells and antibodiesAdaptive Response
Humoral and Cell-mediated response are components ofAdaptive Immunity
Stops microbes present at mucosal surfaces and in the blood from gaining access to and colonizing host cells and connective tissuesAntibodies
Recognize many different types of molecules including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acidsAntibodies
Can prevent infections from ever getting established if present at the site of infectionAntibodies
Receptors on these cells can only recognize peptidesT Cells
Activate phagocytes to destroy microbes that have been ingested by the phagocytes into intracellular vesiclesHelper T Cells (CD4+)
Kill any type of host cells that are harboring infectious microbes in the cytoplasmCytotoxic T Cells (CD8+)
Immunity that is induced in an individual by infection or vaccinationActive Immunity
Immunity that is conferred on an individual by transfer of antibodies from an actively immunized individual; this protection is short-termPassive Immunity
Ensures that distinct antigens elicit specific responsesSpecificity
Enables immune system to respond to a large variety of antigensDiversity
Leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposures to the same antigensMemory
The proliferation and generation of many thousands of genetically identical progeny cells all with the same antigen specificityClonal Expansion
Generates responses that are optimal for defense against different types of microbesSpecialization
Allows immune system to respond to newly encountered antigensContraction
Prevents injury to the host during responses to foreign antigensSelf Nonreactivity
B cells confer this type of immunityHumoral Immunity
T cells confer this type of immunityCell-Mediated Immunity
These cells initiate the T cell responseDendritic Cells
These cells initiate and effector phases of Cell-Mediated ImmunityMacrophages
These cells display antigens only to B cells in humoral immune responseFollicular Dendritic Cells
Inhibitation of bacteria binding to cellsNeutralization
Envelopment of bacteria by bring the bacteria inside of a macrophagePhagocytosis
The only cells that express specific receptors for antigens and are thus the key mediators of adaptive immunityLymphocytes

Tissues of the Immune System

Question Answer
Where T and B lymphocytes mature and become competent to respond to antigensGenerative (Primary) Lymphoid Organs
Consisting of the lymph nodes, spleen, and the mucosal and cutaneous immune systems are where adaptive immune responses to microbes are initiated. Organized to optimize interactions of antigens, APCs, and lymphocytesPeripheral (Secondary) Lymphoid Organs
Nodular aggregates of lymphoid tissues located along lymphatic channels throughout the bodyLymph Nodes
Chemokine receptor responsible for bringing naive T cells into lymph nodes and the spleenCCR7
Receptor expressed by naïve T cells, dendritic cells and central memory T cellsCCR7
Naïve T cells express this surface receptor that binds to carbohydrate ligands expressed only on the endothelial cells of HEVs.L-Selectin
Because the concentration of this phospholipid is higher in the blood than in lymph nodes, the activated T cells increase expression of this receptorSphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors
These memory cells recirculate through lymph nodes where they can mount secondary responses to captured antigensCentral Memory T Cell
These memory cells migrate to sites of infection, where they can respond rapidly to eliminate the infectionEffector Memory T Cells
Lymph tissue located under the epithelia of the skinCutaneous Lymphoid Tissues
Lymph tissue located in the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts. Pharyngeal tonsils and Peyer's patches of the intestine are examplesMucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
In the spleen, T cells are located herePeriarteriolar Lymphoid Sheath (PALS)
In the spleen, B cells are located hereLymphoid Follicle
Lymphocytes enter lymph nodes throughHigh Endothelial Venule (HEV)
Lymphocytes are drawn to the lymph nodes byChemokines
B cells in a follicle have recently responded to an antigen, this follicle may contain a central region calledGerminal Center
These cells are concentrated in the paracortex, which is outside, but adjacent to the folliclesT Lymphocytes
These cells are also located in the paracortex that present antigens to T lymphocytesDendritic Cells

Innate Immunity

Question Answer
Conducts phagocytosis, and has reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as antimicrobial peptidesNeutrophil
Conducts phagocytosis, and produces inflammatory mediators. Antigen presentation and has reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Produces cytokines and compliment proteinsMacrophage
Primary antigen presentation. Produces co-stimulatory signals. Has reactive oxygen species. Produces interferon and cytokinesDendritic Cell
Primary lysis of infected cells. Produces interferon and activates macrophages.Natural Killer (NK) Cells
IL-1, IL-8, TNFa, and IL-6Inflammatory Cytokines
Structures shared by many classes of microbesPAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns)
Toll-like receptor that recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also called endotoxin, present in the cell wall of many Gram-negative bacterial speciesTLR4
Receptors of these type of cells recognize terminal mannose residues, typical of bacterial but not mammalian glycoproteinsPhagocytes
These types of cells recognize and respond to double-stranded RNA, found in many viruses but not in mammalian cellsPhagocytes
These types of cells recognize and respond to unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides, common in microbial DNA but not abundant in mammalian DNAPhagocytes
TLR signals activates this transcription factor which promotes expression of various cytokines and endothelial adhesion moleculesNF-κB (nuclear factor κB)
TLR signal which stimulates production of type I interferons, cytokines that block viral replication.IRF-3 (interferon response factor-3)
APCs produce chemokine B7-1 and B7-2 which binds to this receptor on the T Cells and serves as the secondary activating signalCD28
Functions of this is to provide a physical barrier, kill microbes using locally produced antibiotic (defensins), killing of microbes and infected cells by intraepithelial lymphocytesEpithelia
Amphipathic molecules that have clusters of positively charged amino-acid side chains and hydrophobic amino-acid side chains which allows them to interact with microbial membranesDefensins
The production of neutrophils is stimulated by this cytokine which is secreted by many cell types in response to infections and act on bone marrow stem cells to stimulate proliferation and maturation of neutrophil precursorsColony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
Most abundant leukocytes in the blood, numbering 4,000 to 10,000 per μl. May raise to 20,000 per ul during infectionNeutrophils
First cell type to respond to most infections, particularly bacterial and fungal infectionsNeutrophils
Cell with multilobed nucleus, because of which these cells also are called polymorphonuclear leukocytesNeutrophils
Less abundant than neutrophils, numbering 500 to 1,000 per μl of blood. They also ingest microbes in the blood and in tissues. They are identified by their large kidney-shaped or notched nucleusMonocytes
Once outside of the blood stream, monocytes become theseMacrophages
Macrophages are differentiated phagocytes from these cells within the blood streamMonocytes
Macrophage in the CNSMicroglia
Macrophage in the liverKupffer Cells
Macrophage in the lungsAlveolar Macrophage
Macrophage in the boneOsteoclasts
Accumulation of leukocytes at sites of infection, with concomitant vascular dilation and increased leakage of fluid and proteins in the tissueInflammation
Neutrophils and monocytes migrate to extravascular sites of infection by binding to endothelial adhesion molecules and in response toChemokines
Inherited deficiencies in integrins and selectin ligands lead to defective leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection and increased susceptibility to infectionsLeukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)
Inherited deficiencies in integrins ligands lead to defective leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection and increased susceptibility to infectionsLeukocyte Adhesion Deficiency 1 (LAD 1)
Inherited deficiencies in selectin ligands lead to defective leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection and increased susceptibility to infectionsLeukocyte Adhesion Deficiency 2 (LAD 2)
Crucial to the process of leukocyte transmigration through inter-cellular junctions of vascular endothelial cellsPECAM-1
This integrin on the lymphocyte binds to ICAM-1 which causes the lymphocyte to begin to rolling along the endothelium of the blood vesselLFA-1
The LFA-1 on the lymphocyte bind to this receptor on the endothelium causing the lymphocyte to begin to roll along the endotheliumICAM-1
Mediate weak tethering and rolling of blood neutrophils on the endotheliumE-Selectin
E-selectins bind to this on the leukocyte which causes weak binding called rollingSialyl-Lewis X
Mediate firm adhesion of neutrophils on the endotheliumIntergins
Activate the neutrophils and stimulate their migration through the endothelium to the site of infectionChemokines
The primary cytokine secreted by NK cells that activates macrophagesIFN-γ
The process of coating microbes for efficient recognition by phagocytes is calledOpsonization
Converts O2 to superoxide anion and free radicalsPhagocyte (NADPH) Oxidase
Converts arginine to nitric oxide (NO)iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase)
TLRs, receptors for formyl methionine peptides, and receptors for cytokines, mainly IFN-γ and chemokines are involved mainly in thisPhagocyte Activation
Receptor that binds complimentCR-1
A class of lymphocytes that recognize infected and stressed cells and respond by killing these cells and by secreting the macrophage-activating cytokine IFN-γNatural killer (NK) Cells
Granule proteins produced by NK cells that enter the infected cells and activate enzymes that induce apoptotic deathGranzymes
Granule proteins produced by NK cells that causes holes to form in the membrane that allows granzymes to enter the cellPerforins
NK cells respond to this IL produced by macrophages. NK cells secrete IFN-γ, which activates the macrophages to kill phagocytosed microbesInterleukin-12 (IL-12)
Healthy host cells express self class I MHC molecules, which are recognized by the __________ on the NK cells , thus ensuring that NK cells do not attack normal host cellsInhibitory Receptors
Activating receptor that is specific for IgG antibodies bound to cells. The recognition of antibody-coated cells results in killing of these cells, a phenomenon called antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)FcγRIIIA Receptor
Activating receptors on NK cells have signaling subunits contain this in their cytoplasmic tails Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs)
Inhibitory receptors contain structural motifs in their cytoplasmic domains calledImmunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motifs (ITIMs)
An example of an inhibitory receptor are theKIR (killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors) Receptors
The presence of this activates the Alternative pathwayMicrobes
The presence of this activates the Classical pathwayAntibodies
The presence of this activates the Lectin pathwayMannose-Binding Lectin
The activation of the complement system may be initiated by three distinct pathways, all of which lead to the production of _________ in the early stepsC3b
The most potent inducer of inflammation produced in the late stages of compliment activationC5a
C3b initiates the late steps of complement activation, culminating in the production of numerous peptides and polymerized C9 which forms the ____________ that creates holes in plasma membranes by inserting a pore structure into the membraneMembrane Attack Complex (MAC)
Interleukin that inhibits IL-12 production and reduces the expression of MHC class II moleculesIL-10
Inhibition of inflammation. T cell differentiation of T(h)17 and regulatory T cellTGF-beta
The circulating levels of many of these plasma proteins increase rapidly after infection. This protective response is called theAcute Phase Response
Recognition of this by lymphocytes provides signal 1 for the activation of the lymphocytesAntigen
The recognition of antigen by antigen receptor1st Signal
Induced by microbe or provided by costimulators like CD28 on T cells (receptor), B71 and B72 are the molecules that bind to receptor. For B cells is C3d that binds to CR22nd Signal
Substances that elicit the same innate immune reactions as microbes doAdjuvants
The main adjuvant for vaccine. They induce expression of B7 costimulatorsAluminum Hydroxide
B lymphocytes recognize microbial antigens by their antigen receptors and recognize C3d by a receptor called theType 2 Complement Receptor (CR2)
This cytokine activates production of all other chemokines by activating NF-kB if it signals adjacent cells. The main chemokine of inflammation.IL-1
This cytokine causes systemic responses to infection which include fever and increased liver activityIL-6
This chemokine recruits neutrophils to the area of inflammation/infectionIL-8
This cytokine binds to receptors on the endothelial that opens endothelial tight junction causing vasodilation and localized edema. Causes transcriptional change in the endothelial cell that causes iCAMs to appear in the endothelial layerTNF-a