Immunology - Block 3 - Part 4

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-11-28 05:14

Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Question Answer
This bind to CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 initially and later in infection CXCR4GP120
Protein that allows the fusion of viral envelop with cell plasma membraneGP41
The main target of HIVCD4+ T Cell
Without these cells, macrophages, B cells and CD8+ T cells are impaired for controlling infectionsCD4+ T Cells
Initial drop in CD4 cell count and then rebounds. Flu-like symptoms - fatigue, mild fever, malaise, myalgia, sometimes diarrhea and lymphadenopathyAcute Illness HIV
Positive test for antibodies to HIV. Continuous slow destruction of CD4 cells. No symptomsLatency/ Asymptomatic HIV Infection
CD4 cell count drops below 500/mm3. Weight loss (10% body weight), constant low-grade fever, night sweats, continual diarrhea, and extreme fatigue; also some may have thrushSymptomatic HIV Infection
CD4 cell count decreases to less than 200/mm3. Wasting syndrome. Occurrence of indicator diseases. DementiaAIDS

Immunological Assays

Question Answer
This is conjugated with fluorescence dyes (GFP = immuno-fluorescence), Gold particles (immuno-electron microscopy) or Enzymes for (HRP = immuno-histochemistry and ELISA)Immunoglobin
A version of hemagglutination to test incompatibility between Rh+ baby and Rh- momDirect Coomb’s Test
The serum of the mom is tested (versus RBC of baby with direct) for the presence of anti-Rh antibodiesIndirect Coomb’s Test
Human cells are “stained” with fluorescently labeled antibodiesImmuno-Fluorescence Staining
The monoclonal antibody has the probeDirect Immuno-Fluorescence Staining
A secondary polyclonal antibody (recognizes Fc region on Ig) has the probe which attaches to the monoclonal antibodyIndirect Immuno-Fluorescence Staining
The less antibody concentration at startHigher Titer Number
The greater the antibody concentration at startLower Titer Number
Reagent added to human blood. If the person has the specific antigen on RBCs, then clumping occursAnti-Sera
The antibody is conjugated with enzyme (HRP) and visualization is dependent additional of color changing substrateImmuno-Histochemistry Staining
Enzymatic reduction product by enzyme (ex. HRP) linked to antibody results in detectable light or colorChemiluminescence
Primary antibody is specific to antigen, secondary antibody binds to Fc region of Ig and is conjugated to enzymeWestern Blot (Immuno-Blotting)
A plate based assay to detect soluble antibody in patient samples using colorimetric enzyme reactionELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay)
A plate is initially coated with capture antibody to detect the presence of proteins in the patient’s serum“Sandwich” ELISA
Human cells are labeled with differentially labeled antibodies and single cells are passed through laser beam. Cell populations are “counted” with fluorescent channelsFlow Cytometry
Membrane marker for all T-cellsCD3
Membrane marker for all B-cellsCD20
Membrane marker for NK cellCD16
Indirect type of ELISA that detects antibodies to an unknown antigenELISA
Direct type of ELISA that detects known antigen"Sandwich" ELISA