Immunology - Block 3 - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-11-28 00:35


Question Answer
An antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease that is safeVaccine
Moms pass IgG (placenta) and IgA (breast milk) to infantNatural Passive
Memory immune cells are established after infectionNatural Active
Therapeutically administer IgG to high-risk patientArtificial Passive
Introduction of harmless agent related to infectious agent leads to establishment of memory immune cellsArtificial Active
Immune cells specific to an antigen yield a rapid protective response when virulent agent is encounteredImmunological Memory
Prolongs stability of antigen. Enhances uptake of antigen. Triggers co-stimulation signal for immune cells. Simulates cytokine production. Require to induce memory especially for subunit vaccinesAdjuvant
An example of this is Aluminum hydroxideAdjuvant
Activate TLR on antigen presenting cells, triggering B7 up-regulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are required to stimulate naïve T cellsAdjuvant
Vaccines do not yield 100% protection; however, spread of disease is controlled if a majority of the population is vaccinatedHerd Immunity
This percentage of the population must be vaccinated in order for herd immunity to be effective80%
80% is the percentage of the population that must be vaccinated to produce this within the populationHerd Immunity
Live microbe cultivated under conditions that disable their virulence. Provoke more durable immunological responses. Preferred type for healthy patients, not with compromised immune systemsLive, Attenuated Vaccine
MMR is an example of this type of vaccineLive, Attenuated Vaccine
Previously virulent micro-organisms killed by chemicals or heat. Incomplete or short-lived immune response may occurInactivated Vaccine
Polio (IPV), Flu, Rabies are examples of this type of vaccineInactivated Vaccine
Inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause illness. Require adjuvant for second signal and boostersToxoid Vaccine
Tetanus and Diphtheria (DPT) are examples of this type of vaccineToxoid Vaccine
An extracellular fragment of the micro-organism can create an immune response require adjuvant for second signal and boostersSubunit Vaccine
Hepatitis B, polysaccharide capsule HiB, and whooping cough DPT are examples of this type of vaccineSubunit Vaccine
This class of vaccine can be given to a newborn from day 1Subunit Vaccine
Disease-causing virus is modified in laboratory setting and looses its virulent propertiesLive, Attenuated Vaccine
Yields robust antibody and T cell-mediated life-time immunityLive, Attenuated Vaccine
Not recommended for infants, elderly, pregnant, nursing mothers, immuno-compromised, or patients with underlying health concernsLive, Attenuated Vaccine
Polio vaccine that is administered in developing countries. Can be shed and spread to susceptible individualsAttenuated Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
Polio vaccine that is administered in USA. It does not confer robust mucosal immunity against virulent polioInactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
Highly variable in the amino acid sequence of surface proteins, thus new flu shots are generated every yearInactivated Influenza
Flu vaccine given intranasallyLive, Attenuated Vaccine
Inject anti-viral IgG (artificial passive immunity) at site of injury for immediate neutralization of viral particles and inject inactivated vaccine (artificial active immunity) to stimulate B/T cell activation to control any host infected cells and prevent further viral replicationRabies Treatment
Vaccine composed of the B subunit of the exotoxinToxoid Vaccine
The tetanus and diphtheria of the DPT are examples of this type of vaccineToxoid Vaccine
Toxoid vaccines require this to be effectiveAdjuvant
Immunizing with microbial molecules that are required for attachment results in neutralizing antibodies against whole microbeRecombinant Sub-Unit Vaccine
Hep B is an example of this type of vaccineRecombinant Sub-Unit Vaccine
Comprised of polysaccharide antigen covalently attached (conjugated) to a protein antigenPolysaccharide/Conjugate Vaccine
HiB vaccine is an example of this type of vaccinePolysaccharide/Conjugate Vaccine
Extracellular components are used for the vaccine. Requires adjuvant to properly stimulate T and B cell activationAcellular Vaccine


Question Answer
Destruction or modification of auto-reactive B cells in bone marrow auto-reactive T cells in thymusCentral Tolerance
Destruction or suppression of auto-reactive B cells and T cells in circulationPeripheral Tolerance
If IgM-expressing immature B cell is auto-reactive, there is a second chance to re-arrange light chainReceptor Editing
Back up mechanism to auto-reactive T cells in circulation Regulatory T Cells
Lack of B7:CD28 interactions prevents a T cell from reacting to self-peptideAnergy
Lack of IL-2 triggers expression of FasL ligand, which causes T cell to undergo apoptosisActivation Induced Cell Death
Inability to kill, modify or suppress auto-reactive B or T cells result in immune response that is destructive to tissueLoss of Tolerence
Auto-reactive CD8+ T cells can become activated by cytokines alone, and start attacking self-antigen - MHC Class I expressing cellsInflammation
Around 90% of patients with Ankylosing spondylitis have this geneHLA-B27
Diabetes is associated with these genesDR3 and DR4
For gastrointestinal immune homeostasis, some bacteria are beneficial commensals and stimulate cell activation of these cellsT-Regulatory Cells
Produce IL-10 to suppress and block activation of Th1 cellsT-Regulatory Cells
T-Regulatory cells produce this that suppresses and blocks activation of Th1 cellsIL-10
Genetic and environmental factors alter the flora (microbiota) towards non-beneficial bacteria and trigger Th1 and Th17 cell activation, leading toInflammation
Microbial peptides are identical to self-peptidesMolecular Mimicry
This disease is the classic example of molecular mimicryRheumatic Fever
Antibodies are produced that cross-react to self-antigens here causing rheumatic feverCardiac Cells
Genetics, environment, and immune regulation are the factors that contribute toLoss of Tolerance
The genetic component of loss of tolerance isHLA-type
The environmental component of loss of tolerance isMicrobial Infection
The immune regulation component of loss of tolerance isT-Cell Activation