Immunology Block 1

ptheodore's version from 2015-10-02 11:08

Important Cytokines


Mnemonic of Important Cytokines (Hot T-Bone stEAk)
HotIL-1 causes fever (hot)
T-IL-2 stimulates T-cells
BoneIL-3 stimulates Bone marrow
stEakIL-4 stimulates IgE production
steAkIL-5 stimulates IgA production
CCR7 receptorOn naive T cells, recognize chemokines to bring them to the PALS in spleen and paracortex in lymph node
L-selectinNaïve T cells express & binds to carbohydrate ligands expressed only on the endothelial cells of HEVs in order to get into the lymph node.
Sphingosine-1 phosphate receptorPresent on Activated T cells to draw T cells out into the blood from the lymph nodes
TNF-alphaInflammatory cytokine that attracts neutrophils. Produced by macrophages and dendritic cells
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)Inflammatory cytokine that attracts neutrophils. Produced by macrophages and dendritic cells
Interleukin-6 (IL-6)Cytokine that stimulate acute phase protein (C reactive protein) from liver
TLRsPattern Recognition Receptor in Innate Immunity, Activate NF-κB and IRF-3
N-formyl- Methionyl receptorPattern Recognition Receptor in Innate Immunity
Mannose ReceptorPattern Recognition Receptor in Innate Immunity, stimulate Physgocytosis
Fc gamma receptorActivate phagocytosis and recognize Antibody
NF-kB (mouse q on exam) nuclear factor κBis activated by TLRs, promotes expression of various cytokines and endothelial adhesion molecules
Interferon response factor-3 (IRF-3)is activated by TLRs, stimulates production of type I interferons, cytokines that block viral replication
Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)is important in leukocytes and causes weak tethering and rolling
IFN-gammaCytokine released by NK cells, important in activating phagocytes
CR1Type 1 Complement Receptor recognizes microbes coated with C3b (opsonin) to = phagocytosis
Phagocyte (NADPH) OxidaseConverts O2 to superoxide anion and free radicals released by macrophages
iNOSconverts arginine to nitric oxide (NO), released by macrophages
Interleukin-12Cytokine released by macrophages, recognized by NK cells which secrete IFN-γ for phagocytosis used to activate T cells, pro-inflammatory
FcgIIIA receptorSpecific for IgG bound Ab, used in ADCC (antibody- dependent cellular cytotoxicity), recruits NK cells for apotosis by perforin and granzymes being released
TAP proteinsProteins that grab endogenous peptides and brings them to the ER to interact with MHC class I
HLA-DMCatalyzes the removal of the CLIP peptide and facilitates the binding of the peptide antigens to Class II MHC
CLIP (Class II Invariant Chain Peptide)What remains of the invariant chain after most has been degraded once it gets to the endosome, remains in the binding cleft of Class II MHC molecules
Immunodominant EpitopesThe peptides that bind the MHC molecules and stimulate an immune response. Only certain peptides on the antigens can bind to the MHC molecule so these “epitopes” that bind start their immune response
Mannose Binding LectinRecognize microbial terminal mannose sugars , coats microbes for phagocytosis, activated Mannose binding lectin complement pathway, part of innate immunity
C-Reaactive ProteinBinds to phosphrycholine on microbes and coats for phagocytosis, macrophages express receptor for CRP, part of innate immunity
Classical Complement PathwayIgM and IgG recognized and initiates pathways via C1
Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs)Activating receptors on NK cells
Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs)Inhibitory Receptors on NK cells, specific for Class I MHC receptors, block signaling from activating receptors, e.gFCIR
Follicular Dendritic Cells (FDC)Secrete chemokines to attract B cells to follicles in peripheral lymph organs, Only present antigens to B cells
IL-10Inhibitory cytokine that inhibits IL-12, T cell activation and T cell effector function
CD28Receptor on T cells that recognize costimulators for signal #2 in activation
B7Example of a costimulator that is recognized by the CD28 receptors on T Cells. Made by macrophages
C3aInflammation production of complement
C3bProduct of complement which is an opsonin and recognized by macrophages, binds to CR1 in early step of activation
C5aPotent inflammatory product of complement, Triggers mast cells to secrete histamine, Recruits and activate leukocytes
C3dInteracts with CR2 Type 2 complement receptor on B cells to activate(2nd signal) along with antigen
CR2Interacts with CR2 Type 2 complement receptor on B cells to activate(2nd signal) along with antigen
Alpha 1 & alpha 2 domains on MHC Class IVariant and form the peptide binding cleft
Beta-2 domain of class IIInvariant & is the binding site for CD4+ T-cells
Alpha-1 & beta-1 domains on MHC class IIVariant & form the peptide binding cleft
Class I MHC moleculesExpressed on all nucleated cell, present antigen to CD8+ T cells, Acquire peptides from cytosolic proteins
Class II MHC moleculesExpressed on dendritic cells, macrophages and B lymphocytes and present antigen to CD4+ T cells, acquire peptides from intracellular vesicles (endosomes, phagosomes)
Invariant Chain protein (Ii)Protein chain present on MHC class II to block the peptide binding cleft to stop binding endogenous peptides made for the Class I pathway, also facilitates the transport of MHC Class II to the endosome from the ER.

Important Cytokines

CytokinesSecreted byTargets and Major Effects
IL-1MacrophagesTarget(s): Endothelium
Effects: Fever (endogenous pyrogen), Inflammation, Increased Vascular Permeability by activating endothelium to express adhesion molecules; induces chemokine secretion to recruit leukocytes.
IL-6Macrophages; TH2 CellsTarget(s): T-Cell, B-Cell
Effects: Endogenous pyrogen. Causes fever and stimulates production of acute phase proteins.
IL-8MacrophagesTarget(s): Neutrophil
Effects: Major chemotactic factor ("Clean up on aisle 8." Neutrophils are recruited by IL-8 to clear infections)
IL-12MacrophagesTarget(s): TH1, NK Cell
Effects: Induces T cell differentiation into TH1 cells. Activates NK cells. Also secreted by B cells.
TNF-α (cachectin)MacrophagesTarget(s): Endothelium
Effects: Mediates septic shock. Causes leukocyte recruitment, vascular leak.
IL-2ALL T-CellsTarget(s): T-Cell, B-Cell, NK Cell
Effects: Stimulates growth of helper, cytotoxic and regulatory T-Cells.
IL-3ALL T-CellsTarget(s): Stem Cells
Effects: Supports growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. Functions like GM-CSF.
(IFN-γ )
TH1 CellsTarget(s): Macrophage, TH1 cells
Effects: Activates macrophages and TH1 cells. Supresses TH2 cells. Has antiviral and antitumor properties (increases MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation in all cells)
IL4TH2 CellsTarget(s): T-Cell, B-Cell
Effects: Induces differentiation in TH2 cells. Promotes growth of B cells. Enhances class switching to IgE and IgG.
IL5TH2 CellsTarget(s): B-Cell, Eosinophils
Effects: Promotes B-cell class switching from IgM to IgA. Stimulates growth and differentation of eosinophils.
IL10TH2 CellsTarget(s): TH1
Effects: Down-regulates the expression of TH1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens, and costimulatory molecules.


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