gsafsaf's version from 2015-05-22 18:00

Lymphatic Drainage

Question Answer
Arms + breastsAxillary nodes
Lateral dorsal sides of feetPopliteal nodes
ThighsSuperficial inguinal nodes
StomachCeliac nodes
Duodenum + jejunemSuperior mesenteric nodes
Sigmoid colonInferior mesenteric nodes
Upper rectumPararectal nodes
Lower rectum ABOVE pectinate lineInternal iliac nodes
Lower rectum BELOW pectinate lineSuperficial inguinal nodes
TestesPara-aortic nodes
ScrotumSuperficial inguinal nodes
Right arm + Right side of headUltimately - right lymphatic duct
Everywhere in the body except for R arm + R side of headUltimately - Thoracic duct
Where does the thoracic duct eventually drain to?Junction of L subclavian and internal jugular vein

Cell Surface Markers

Question Answer
CD3All T Cells
TCRAll T Cells
CD28All T Cells
CD4Helper T Cells
CD8Cytotoxic T Cells
CD40Macrophages, B Cells, Dendritic Cells
S-100Langerhans cells
CD1-aLangerhans cells
MHCI, MHCII, B7, CD40Dendritic Cells
CD4 + CD8Immature unspecialized T Cells
B7Costimulatory signal on Dendritic Cells; either CD80 or CD86; binds to CD28 on Th1/2 or on Cytotoxic T Cells
CD28Binds T Cells to B7
CD40B Cell Costimulatory Signal; Th1 use this costimulatory signal to make macrophages more sensitive to IFN-G
CD40 ligandTh2 cell receiving Costimulatory Signal
CD16 + CD56NK Cells
CD16Binds to antibodies--> Antibody Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC), found on surfaces of NK cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils
CD19B Cells
CD20B Cells
CD21B Cells
IgM + IgDB Cells
CD14, MHCII, B7, CD40Macrophages
MHCIAll nucleated cells
CD14Binds LPS endotoxin of Gram (-) bacteria


Question Answer
IL-2, IL-3, IFN-Gsecreted by Th1
IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10secreted by Th2
IL-4Proliferation of B Cells
IL-4Stimulates production of IgE + IgG
IL-4"BEG 4 iT"
IL-5Proliferation of B Cells
IL-5Stimulates IgA production
IL-5Stimulates eosiniphils
IL-5"Snot promoting"
IL-10Inhibits Th1 + Macrophages
IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, IL-12secreted by macrophages
IL-1Mediates fever
IL-6Mediates fever
IL-6Stimulates production of acute phase reactants
IL-8Neutrophil chemotaxis
TNFaMakes vessels leaky; septic shock
TNFaLeukocytes recruitment
IL-8, C5a, Leukotriene B4Neutrophil chemotactic agents
IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10Secreted by Th2 Cell
IFN-G, IL-2Secreted by Th1 Cell
IL-2Proliferation + differentiation of T Cells
IL-12Activates natural killer cells, secreted by Macrophages + Dendritic Cells
IL-2, IL-12, IFN-a, IFN-ßAll enhance NK cell activity
IFN-GTh1 secretes this to activate macrophages
IFN-GInhibits Th2
IFN-a + IFNßhelp neighboring cells avoid virus infxn, inhibit cellular protein synthesis, encourage activation of ribonuclease that degrades viral mRNA
recombinant IFN-aused to treat genital warts, Hep B+C, Kaposi sarcoma, Hairy cell leukemia, Melanoma
recombinant IFN-ßused to treat Multiple Sclerosis
recombinant IFN-Gused to treat chronic granulomatous disease


Question Answer
IL-1mediates fever
IL-2stimulates T cells
IL-3stimulates BONE marrow (like granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor - GM-CSF)
IL-4Stimulates IgE (NOT eosinophils tho) + IgG production
IL-5Stimulates IgA production + eosiniphils
IL-6Stimulates aKute phase proteins


Question Answer
Anti-IgG antibodiesRA
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPCA)RA
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)SLE
Anti-dsDNALupus renal disease
Anti-histoneDrug-induced lupus
Anti-centromereCREST scleroderma
Anti-Scl-70Diffuse scleroderma
Anti-SSA (anti-Ro)Sjögren syndrome
Anti-SSB (anti-La)Sjögren syndrome
Anti-U1-RNPMixed connective tissue disease
Anti-desmogleinPemphigus vulgaris
Anti-acetylcholine receptorMyasthenia gravis
Anti-endomysial (anti-tissue transglutaminase)Celiac disease
Anti-gliadinCeliac disease
Anti-mitochondrialPrimary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-smooth muscleAutoimmune hepatitis
Anti-glutamate decarboxylaseType 1 diabetes
Anti-thyrotropin receptorGraves disease
Anti-thyeoid peroxidase (anti-TPO)Hashimoto thyroiditis
Anti-thyroglobulinHashimoto thyroiditis, Graves disease
Anti-basement membraneGoodpasture syndrome
c-ANCAGranulomatosis with polyangitis
p-ANCAPauci-immune crescentic GN, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Microscopic polyangitis

Complement components

Question Answer
C1Starting point of Classic Pathway
C1 esterase inhibitorinhibits cleavage of C1 into its active components
C5a, C6, C7, C8, C9Components of Membrane attack complex (MAC)
C3a + C5aAnaphylaxis
C3aStimulates mast cells + basophils
C5aNeutrophil chemotaxis
Deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitorHereditary angioedema; elevated bradykinin; ACE inhibitors contraindicated
Deficiency of C3Recurrent pyogenic sinus infections and respiratory tract infections (esp. S pneumo + H. influenzae); Increased susceptibility to type III hypersensitivity (esp. glomerular nephritis)
Deficiency of C5b, C6, C7, C8, or C9Neisseria bacteremia
Deficiency of DAF (CD55) + MAC-inhibitory protein (CD59)Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); DAF deficiency due to deficiency in GPI, which normally anchors DAF to plasma membrane
Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF) aka CD55Helps protect own cells from complement that has been spontaneously activated via alternate pathway
MAC-inhibitory protein (CD59)Protects self-cells from being destroyed by MAC

Transplant Rejection

Question Answer
Minutes to hoursHyperacute rejection
Ab-mediated type II hypersensitivity rxnHyperacute rejection
Weeks (w/in 3 months)Acute rejection
Cell-mediatedAcute rejection
Cytotoxic T cells recognize foreign MHCIAcute rejection
Give immunosuppressants to suppress cell-mediated immunity and prevent thisAcute rejection
Try to prevent by block IL-2 (T-cell production)Acute rejection
ReversibleAcute rejection
Months to yearsChronic rejection
Mediated by T cels and AbsChronic rejection
Cytotoxic T cells treat transplant cells as self-cells presenting non-self antigenChronic rejection
Vascular damage, fibrosisChronic rejection
IrreversibleChronic rejection
Mc in bone-marrow transplantsGraft-versus-host disease
Maculopapular rash on neck, shoulders, ears, palms (looks like Steven-Johnson's)Graft-versus-host disease
Hemolysis/jaundice/hepatosplenomegaly/abdominal pain/diarrhea/N/VGraft-versus-host disease