Immuno - Vaccine Review

drraythe's version from 2015-06-15 00:05


Question Answer
Diff between giving a tetanus toxin (toxoid) & giving TAT?Giving toxoid = Active immunity. Animal's immune system must make its own antibodies against it. TAT = Tetanus Anti-Toxin, an antibody, neutralizes it for the immune system & immune system doesnt have to make Ab (immediate results)
Problem w/ TAT?Non-horse animal which received horse Ab can develop antibody against that Ab - serum sickness!
What are adjuvants?An additional thing in a vaccine that enhances the body’s response to vaccine Ag. (esp. if it's a killed vaccine - got to convince the body to make Ab against it)
What is a depot adjuvant?Delays antigen removal (aluminum salts, water-in-oil promotes Th1 aka CMI)
Particulate adjuvants are?Particles easier to get picked up by APCs than soluble antigens
What is an immunostimulatory adjuvant?Substance stimulates cytokine production which stims immune response (LPS, killed bact, microbial DNA)
Describe Toxoid vaccineInactivated bacterial toxins (toxoids) used as vaccine Ag
What is a MLV? Describe itModified live vaccine/live attenuated vaccine. LIVE BACTERIA OR VIRUS which has been grown to be less virulent. REPLICATE INSIDE CELLS → Endogenous Antigens
Pros of MLV?Can infect INSIDE cells (get CMI, Th1), provides VERY STRONG immunity for a long time, lots of epitopes, no adjuvant needed
Cons of MLVLive organism can still possibly bc dz, might mutate back to virulent state, needs refrigeration, might contain other live organisms which might cause dz
Expected immune response of MLV?Th1 - CM = Last longer, endogenous antigen, GEDG or GEMG = Cat I
Describe a killed vaccineOrganism killed w/ chemicals/heat/irradiation
Pros of killed vaccine?More stable, SAFER! Doesn't need refrigerating, cant mutate back to virulent state
Cons of killed vaccine?Weaker immune response, more doses needed, needs adjuvants which might be irritating, might be strain-specific (no cross-protection)
What kind of immune response does a killed response cause?Th2, humoral response, exogenous antigen, NOT Genetically Engineered. KV = Cat I, needs to be boostered for immunity to last.
What is a bacterin?A killed vaccine of a killed bacteria
What are the 3 genetically engineered vaccines?Live attenuated, subunit & recombination vector vaccines
Describe a subunit vaccineInstead of entire microbe, this vaccine includes only antigens that best stimulate immune system. Take DNA of antigen you are interested in, put it in a plasmid, put plasmid in a bacteria, grow bacteria, harvest the proteins. NOT A LIVING ORGANISM, JUST A PROTEIN
Cons of subunit vaccinesPurified protein might not be folded the same as the original, so might not have such a good response. Still need adjuvant,
Immune response of subunit vaccines?Th2 via MCH II, humoral mediated, Exogenous antigen, → GESV = Cat I
Describe recombinant vectored vaccine"Vector" is the LIVE carrier virus/bact which is harmless. We inject portions of other dz's genetic material into the vector. Then we infect pt w/ the vector, & the vector ferries that DNA to the cells of the pt
What kind of response does a recombinant vectored vaccine cause?Th-1, via MCH I, CMI, endogenous antigen, GERV = Cat III
What is Category-I of genetically engineered vaccines?(SUBUNIT VACCINE when proteins used) (1 feels sub-par) killed recombinant organisms/proteins derived from recombinant organisms. Proteins are purified & used as a protein vaccine
What is a Category-II of genetically engineered vaccines?Live organisms which contain gene deletions or modified genes which result in reduced virulence.Th1, endogenous antigen, no adjuvant needed. → GEDG or GEMG = Cat II
What is a Category-III of genetically engineered vaccines?LIVE VECTOR (RECOMBINANT VECTOR VACCINE) (-RE- means over again, like multiple, like 3 re-infecting everyone) contains live expression factors (usually large viruses) into which genes from a pathogen have been inserted
What is a DNA vaccine?Insert a vaccine gene into e coli plasmid. E coli replicates & makes lots of the plasmids. Harvest plasmids & inject the naked DNA intramuscularly. APCs internalize plasmid DNA. APC produces proteins of plasmid which aren't all messed up like in subunit vaccines. APCs present plasmid via MHC-1
Immune response to a DNA vaccine?Th-1 & Th2, MCH I & II, exogenous & endogenous. Are not categorized by the USDA.
Pros of DNA vaccine?Properly folded proteins, get a CMI response, not infecting animal w/ live organism
Cons of DNA vaccine?Plasmid DNA could integrate into host in a detrimental way