Immuno - Principals

eaur32's version from 2016-02-16 23:31


Question Answer
3 main parts of innate immunityChemicals, cells, inflammation
Chemicals of innate immunityEnzymes, proteins (defensins, lysozymes)
Cells of innate immunityNeutrophils, macrophages, NK cells
Properties of innate immunityLacks memory, necessary, IMMEDIATE
Properties of acquired immunitySmart, ANTIGEN driven, specific, memory, slow
Cells of acquired immunityT & B lymphocytes
Antigen is...Foreign molecules
2 types of acquired immunityHumoral & cell-mediated
Humoral immunity (cells involved & where?)(From acquired) B-lymphocytes. Make ANTIBODY. EXTRACELLULAR
Cell-mediated immunity (cells involved, targets)T-lymphocytes, intracellular pathogens
Passive immunityAcquired immunity (antibody) given passively to another animal
Passive immunity examplesAb in colostrum, Ab in vaccine
Dis-regulation of the immune system categories (4)Hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, neoplasia
Inflammation = activation/migration of?Mainly neutrophils & macrophages
Phagocytic cellsMonocytes/macrophages (in/out of blood), neutrophils
Polymorphonuclear cells are...?Granulocytes (neutrophils!)
Soluble defense factors are from? 3 types?Phagocytes & liver cells/ enzymes, defensins, interferons
What are CYTOkinesSm. proteins, mediate cellular INTERACTIONS & reg cell growth/secretion
What are interferonsCytokines that interfere w/ viral replication
What are defensinsAnti-bacterial peptides
What are complement proteinsSerum factors: facilitate phagocytosis via opsonization (adherence), induce inflammation, promote mast cell degranulation, lysis
What is chemotaxisChemical gradient to attract inflammatory cells
2 cell lines from pluripotent stem cellsLymphoid (T, B, NK) & myeloid (rest)
Primary granules of neutrophils are?Enzymes & defensins
Secondary granules of neutrophils areLysozyme, lactoferrin, collagenases
Pools of neutrophils are (2)Circulating pool (circ in blood), marginal pool (attached to sides of BV)
Neutrophilia isAbove normal neutrophils in blood (one cause = Marginal pool moving to circ pool)
Neutrophil life spanShort (6-10 hr) & phagocytosis = death. No circulating prolif.
Surface of neutrophil containsSurface receptors for complement proteins & receptors for Ab's (Fc receptors)
2 portions of Ab? Which does what?Fc (binds to self-cells), Fab (binds to antigen)
Adhesion proteins on what, to do what?Neutrophil, to attach to endothelium (A.P. = type of integrins)
What are integrins?Leukocyte adhesion molecules (cell surface proteins that promote adherence to things)
4 steps of phagocytosisChemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, destruction
What is chemotaxis?Directed migration, chemical gradients of sm protein molecules/complement proteins/chemokines
What is an opsonin?Proteins that promote binding of pathogens to phagocytes
What are CHEMOkinesChemotactic cytokines that attract specific cells. They help mediate inflammation
Adherence requires what?Receptors for soluble proteins! (Receptors for complement proteins, receptors for Fc portion of Ab) (Integrins/adherence proteins)
Ingested organism is put into a vacuole called aPhagosome
2 types of destruction in phagocytosis1) Oxygen-dependent killing 2) Oxygen independent killing (lytic enzymes & bactericidal peptides)
Oxygen-dependent killing mechanism isRespiratory burst (need O2 to accomplish this)
How can a pathogen survive in a macrophage? (2)1) Resistant to lysosomal contents 2) Inhibit phagolysosomal fusion
Examples of pathogens that can survive in a phagocyteMycobacterium bovis, Rhodococcus equi, Brucella abortus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium
Eosinophils deal w/...Parasites
Basophils deal w/...Allergic reactions


Question Answer
Receptors found on phagocytes?Fc receptors, complement protein receptors, integrin receptors (integrins also expressed), receptors for cytokines (monocytes also make cytokines), pattern recognition receptors
What are interleukins?Cytokines that act as growth & differentiation factors for cells of the immune system
What size antigens can be intravascular trapped by phagocytes?Large antigens (>60kDa), or smaller antigens that are SOLUBLE (create immune complexes w/ Ab's) (insoluble complexes are deposited in tissue & cause damage)
What are APCs? What do they do?Antigen presenting cells - (macrophages) trap, process & present antigen to lymphocytes
What are pattern recognition receptors? (PRRs)Receptors to recognize microbes as groups of pathogens (exgram + bact.) based on microbial molecules (PAMPs)
What are PAMPs?Pathogen associated membrane patterns (molecules common among microbes, phagocytes use these to recognize a pathogen)
What are TLRs?"Toll-like receptors" important group of PRRs (pattern recognition receptors)
Interaction of TLR + PAMP =Phagocytizing of microbe, stimulate production of cytokines
NK cells important in immunity against...Viral/ tumor immunity. Kill other cells.
NK cells regulated by...?Cytokines