Immunizations Concepts

llbgurl's version from 2015-09-27 15:50

Section 1

Question Answer
immunityprotection from infectious disease, usually indicated by presence of antibody specific to a single organism
active immunityprotection produced by the person's OWN immune system, usually permanent, produced by a vaccination
passive immunityprotection transferred from another human or animal, TEMPorary, protection wanes with time
antigena live or inactivated substance (protein or polysaccharide) capable of producing an immune response
antibodyprotein molecule (immunoglobulin) produced by B lymphocytes to help eliminate antigen

Section 2

Question Answer
made by modifying a disease producing "wild" virus or bacteria in a lab. Can replicate immunity but NOT cause illnesslive vaccines
Must replicate to be effectivelive vaccines
weakened form of the wild viruslive vaccines
immune response similar to natural disease and produces immunity with one doselive vaccine
severe reactions possiblelive vaccines
fragile: careful storage and handlinglive vaccines
Viral live attenuatedMMR, Varcicella, Rotaviruals, Intranasal flu, Oral Polio, Zoster, Yellow fever
Bacterial live attenuatedBCG, Oral typhoid
can not replicateinactivated vaccines
less trouble with circulating antibodiesinactivated vaccines
requires 3-4 doses to confer immunityinactivated vaccines
humoral immune responseinactivated vaccines
antibody titers wane over timeinactivated vaccines
WHOLE inactivated whole virusPolio, Hep A, Rabies, InfluenzA
WHOLE inactivated whole bacterialPertussis, Typhoid
FRACTIONAL inactivated protein-based SUBUNITHep B, Influenza, Acellular pertussis, HPV, Anthrax
FRACTIONAL inactivated protein-based TOXOIDDiptheria, Tetanus
POLYSACCHARIDE based inactivated PUREPure Pneumococcal, Meningococcal
POLYSACCHARIDE based inactivated CONJUGATEH. Influenza, Pneumococcal, Meningococcal
Polysaccharide based vaccinesmost composed of pure cell wall polysaccharide from bacteria
Conjugate polysaccharide vaccinescontain polysaccharide chemically linked to protein making vaccine more immunogenic and usable in children LESS than 2 years of age

Section 3

Question Answer
give vaccines and antibodies on SAME daylive vaccines have to replicate to make response. Antibody against live vaccine may interfere with replication
vaccine product given firstmust wait 2 weeks before giving antibody
antibody product given firstmust wait 3 months or more before giving vaccine
MMR, Varicella, Synagisshould all be given at the same time. Synagis contains RSV antibody
MMR and TB testdo on SAME day or wait 4 weeks = MMR can decrease response to TB test
live vaccinesNOT given on same day = must wait 4 WEEKS between live vaccines
MMR and Varicella givenmust wait 4 weeks to give nasal flu vaccine = violated MUST repeat the first vaccines
Minimal vaccine intervalVaccines should NOT be given at intervals LESS than the minimum or earlier than minimum age unless measles outbreak
vaccines given 4 days before minimum intervalSHOULD be counted as VAILD (ACIP)
Maximal vaccine intervalNO maximal interval between doses. NEVER repeate a vaccine series for prolonged interval. JUST CONTINUE SERIES

Section 4

Question Answer
adverse reactionextraneous effect caused by the vaccine, side effect
adverse reactionany event following vaccination, may be true adverse reaction OR coincidental
pain, swelling, redness at injection sitelocal reaction
common with inactivated vaccineslocal reaction
usually mild and self limitinglocal reaction
fever, malaise, headachesystemic reaction
nonspecificsystemic reaction
may be unrelated to vaccinesystemic reaction
live attenuated viruse can cause sx of illness following normal incubation period for illnesssystemic reaction
vaccine or vaccine componenetallergic reaction
rareallergic reaction
risk is minimized by screening prior to giving vaccinesallergic reaction
VAERS vaccines adverse event reporting systemreport to private and public sectors, NPs should report any clinically significant adverse event that occurs after administration of vaccine licensed in the US, report even if UNSURE
VAERSdetects new or rare events, increases in rates of known side effects, and patient risk factors
VICP vaccine injury compensation programNo fault program, covers ALL routine childhood vaccines, compensation based on vaccine injury table

Section 5

Question Answer
valid contraindications to vaccinationa condition in a recipent that greatly increases the chances of a serious adverse reaction
severe allergic reaction to a vaccine or vaccine componentpermanent contraindication
encephalopathy NOT due to another identifiable causing occuring within 7 days of pertussis vaccinationpermanent contraindication
severe combine immunodeficiency permanent contraindication, rotavirus
history of intussuceptionpermanent contraindication, rotavirus
mild illnessinvaild
antimicrobial therapyinvaild
disease exposure or convalescence (recovering from illness)invaild
preterm birthinvaild
allergy to products NOT present in the vaccineinvaild
allergy that is NOT anaphylacticinvaild
family history of adverse reactioninvaild
tuberculin skin testinvaild
multiple vaccinesinvaild
live vaccinesNOT administered during pregnancy
inactivated vaccinesSHOULD be given to pregnant women who need them
HPV vaccineNOT while pregnant
Precautions definition to giving vaccinesa condition in a recipient that MIGHT increase the chance or severity of an adverse reaction
Precautions defintion to giving vaccinesMight compromise the ability of the vaccine to produce immunity

Section 6

Question Answer
immunosuppression Live vaccines should NOT be given to SEVERE immunosuppressed
Isolated b-cell deficiencyMAY recieve varicella vaccine
immunosuppressionok to give INACTIVATED vaccines BUT response may be DECREASED
Disease Immunosuppresioncongenital immunodefciency, leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy
Chemotherapy immunosuppressionalkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation
corticosteriod immunosupprsion20 mg or more per day of prednisone OR 2 mg/kg/day or more
short burst steriods, aerosols, alternate day prednisone, topical steriodsare NOT contraindicated
HIV VaricellaONLY if asymptomatic
MMR HIVONLY if asymptomatic
recent blood productinactivated only ok to give
severe illnessprecautionary for both live and inactivated