Immunity and Vaccination

zijimubo1's version from 2016-12-13 01:25

Section 1

Question Answer
Name 2 categories of immunity in immunization Active and Passive
Describe active immunizationimmunogen is injected and elicits an adaptive response
Describe passive immunizationAntibodies or cells are injected to provide protection from an infection or toxin
Explain 2 ways how Passive immunity is acquired.Natural - Ab transfer placenta or colostrum Artificial - Passive antibody therapy (serum, administration of immune human globulin)
define attenuatedweakened
Humoral immunity is associated with?long-term persistence of circulating antibodies
What determines whether or not a secondary infection will cause disease?length of incubation period because acute disease too soon before accelerated response.
Explain the result of multiple immunizations.Affinity and titer of antibodies increases (exclusively IgG). Elicit long-lived plasma cells that will become resident in bone marrow
What is "herd" immunity?Individuals around vaccinated person will develop immunity as well.

Section 2

Question Answer
Name 3 advantages of Attenuated vaccine.1) immunization nautral 2) greater potential for development of herd immunity 3) delivery of vaccine is simple and inexpensive
What is an attenuated vaccine?a weakened version of pathogen that was selected and cultured.
Conjugated vaccines are important for what type of organisms?Bacterial infections for which polysaccharide coating or capsule is a key virulence factor. Production of antibodies specific for carbs important for opsonization.
How are conjugated vaccines developed?Relevant bacterial polysaccharides are covalently attached "CONJUGATED" to protein carriers.
Explain how conjugated vaccines work.Carrier protein is engulfed along with antigen, that is later presented on surface, eleciting a T-dependent response and resulting in MEMORY T cells and B cells.

Section 3

Question Answer
Brielfy explain the US protocol for vaccinations.7 vaccines given within 1st year.
What is colostrum?Passed through breastfeeding milk.
What antibody is transferred through the placenta?IgG
What antibody is supplemented via colostrum?IgA
What are the main sources of passive immunity in infancy?Placental transfer and colostrum.
Explain the clinical use of passive immunity and it's limitations.Inject anti-bodies for Toxins. Heterologous antiserum results in activation of immune response. Re-use not acceptable and can possibly cause serum sickness (Type III HS)