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Immunity 5

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juniperk's version from 2018-03-24 20:13

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Question Answer
What is a hyperacute transplant rejection? Tx?Circulating antibodies react with graft. Treatment is removing graft.
What is acute transplant rejection? Tx?Type 4 hypersensivity. Exposure to transplant causes activation of immune system. Tx: Increase dosage of immunosuppressants, steroids, monoclonal antibodies.
What is chronic transplant rejection? Tx?Blood vessels in transplant gradually damaged.
If a patient is having an acute transplant reaction, what symptoms might they have and when do they develop?Organ failure, fever, tenderness of swelling on graft. Occurs about 2 weeks after transplant.
If a patient is having a host vs graft disease rejection after transplant, what cell is initiating the response? S/S immune response initiated by T lymphocytes of donor tissue against the recipient’s tissues. signs and symptoms are fever, diffuse reddened skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Lack of B cells-No immunoglobulins. Still have cell mediated immunity like Tc cells.
Lack of Tc cells-Stop destruction of infected body cells. still have IgG and IgM
Lack of TH1 cells-Same as lack of Tc cells. Stop destruction of infected body cells. still have IgG and IgM
Lack of TH2 cells-Same as B cells. No immunoglobulins. Still have cell mediated immunity like Tc cells.
Lack of macrophages-leave the patient susceptible to infectious disease and other chronic conditions.
What is SCID?Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease. Congenital disorder; X linked gene. Absence of humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
Symtoms of SCID. Thrush. 2. Infections from the unusual agents 3. Failure to thrive
How soon should you treat SCID?before 2 months. Child by 2y will die from infection. Difficult to dx after birth due to immunoglobulins from mom.
Tx for SCID 4 Room placement?1. Stem cell transplant. 2. IVIG ( Kids can have a hypersensitivity type reaction) 3. Immunizations 4. Antibiotics. Private room
What is the most important nursing mgmt for immunocompromised patients?hand washing
How soon will the symptoms of HIV appear after it has been contracted? When can the infected person transmit HIV?Initial symptoms usually occur within 3 weeks of first exposure to HIV, after which the person becomes asymptomatic. Persons infected with HIV can transmit the virus to others any time after infection has occurred, whether they are symptomatic or asymptomatic.
Stages of HIV- Primary- s/s? how long does this stage last?S/S of a systemic infection. Rash fever chills, headache, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and sore throat. Symptoms usually occur within 3 weeks of initial exposure to HIV, after which the person becomes asymptomatic. This sta
Stages of HIV- Latent phase- s/s? how long does this stage last?•No clinical problems •Characterized by continuous viral replication. viral load stabilizes •Can last for many years (10 years or longer)
Stages of HIV- Chronic phase- s/s? how long does this stage last?Lasts 2-4 years. Chronic S/S rising titers.
Stages of HIV- AIDS- CD4 count? clinical manifestations?CD4T-cell counts less than 200. Wasting syndrome, malignancies, dementia, opportunistic infections.
AIDS- therapeutic mgmtAZT, retrovir 2. Routine IVIG 3. Vaccinations (as long as CD4 >200; all vaccines) 4. Monitor for fluid and electrolytes imbalances.
Dx for HIV?1. Positive ELISA 2. Western blot test 3. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test may be used to differentiate between HIV infection in the neonate and antibodies the neonate receives from the mother.
What are the opportunistic infections?1. Pneumonia 2. Kaposi Sarcoma 3. Non hodgkins lymphoma 4. Invasive cervical cancer 5. Anal carcinomas 6. wasting syndrome 7. neurological diseases 8. pulmonary TB
Wasting syndrome- nursing mgmt1. Aggressive nutrition at time of dx 2. Zinc supplements 3. Educate on prevention/mgmt of disease.
Wasting syndrome- MedicationsAntiretroviral therapy 2. Nucleotide analong reverse transcriptase 3. Prophylactic meds 4. Protease inhibitors 5. Appetitie stimulants 6. Oral progesterone (prevent oonset of wasting syndrome)
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