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Immunity 3

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juniperk's version from 2018-03-31 02:50

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Question Answer
What are the 2 exudate involved in peritonitis?Initial response will be serous exudate (soaker hose mentalitiy) then fibrinous exudate (makes the intestines sticky.
What happens when an IgE/ mast cell complex encounters an allergen?It causes degranulation of the mast cell which releases histamine. This is the most common type of allergic reaction.
What are the 3 things that H1 receptors do?Contract bronchial smooth muscle. 2. Increase vascular permeability (leading to edema) 3. Vasodilation (increase blood flow to area)
What can H2 receptors cause?Increased gastric secretions whic can lead to ulcers.
What happens on first exposure to the allergen?Pt may not even notice. 1. Macrophages must ingest the allergen and present it to T cells. 2. TH2 cells must be sensitized & divide, stimulating B cells. 3. B cells must divide & differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells (IgE cells)
What happens on second exposure?1. B memory cells must be activated to produce more IgE. 2. IgE attaches to mast cells so they also can be involved.
What happens when the allergen binds to IgE?Mast cells degranulate causing local inflammation (histamine release). Once histamine is released, the body goes down the allergic pathway (causes bronchospasm, vasodilation, & vascular permeability) 2. Recruit phagocytes, particularly eosinophils
What inflammatory mediators are involved? How?Histamine- vasodilation 2. Acetylcholine & kinins (brady)- smooth muscle constriction in airways, vasodilation. 3. Leukotrienes and prostaglandins- produce the same effects on a prolonged scale 4. Cytokines & chemotaxic factors- attract more WBCs to contribute to the response
What are the 9 clinical manifestations for IgE mediated response?bronchospasms 2. wheezing 3. rhinorrhea 4. Horizontal ridge line across bridge of nose. 5 allergic gape 6. allergic shiner (not a true black eye) 7. urticara 8 angioedema 9. Anaphylaxis
5 medications for IgE mediated response?1. Antihistamines 2. Mast cells degradation -block release of histamine (Cromolyn sodium) 3. Decongestants 4. Corticosteroids 5. Epinephrine
Which 5 meds cause vasodilation?1 Histamine 2. Acetylcholine 3. Kinins 4. Leukotrienes 5. Prostaglandins
What are the most commone antibody mediated hypersensitivity?Transfusion reactions
What type of sensitivity are most drug reactions?Type II
Type II can be caused by what autoimmune diseases?1. Goodpasture syndrome 2. Myasthenia Gravis 3. Grave's disease
What is Type II hypersensitivity? Antibody mediated. 2) Destruction or altered function of a target cell through the action of antibodies (IgG or IgM) against an antigen on the cell’s plasma membrane
Type II Hypersensitivity involves 1 of 4 physiological mechanisms . What are all 4?a) Complement mediated lysis b) Phagocytosis from macrophages c) Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity d) Antibody binding
What is Type III Hypersensitivity?Immune complex mediated.
Name the 3 steps for Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Mediated?1) Involves free floating antigens circulating in the vasculature. 2) Immune complexes randomly deposit in tissues & activate the complement 3) Tissue damaged by lysosomal activity of neutrophils b/c of complement activation
What are 3 autoimmune diseases commonly associated with Immune complex mediated type 3?i) Lupus ii) Autoimmune vasculitis iii) Glomerulonephritis iv) b) Serum Sickness can also cause this
What are the most common sites damaged by Type 3 hypersensitivities?i) Kidneys, joints, skin & blood vessels
How can you dx Type 3 hypersensitivities?Complement assay can provide some diagnostic & predictive indicatores of the acute or chronic processes involved. 2. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can indicate inflammation (elevated during Type 3)
Therapeutic mgmt for type 3?a) Treatment will depend on what or where hypersensitivity is occurring b) Treat clinical manifestations i) Analgesics ii) Antihistamines iii) Steroids
What is type 4 hypersensitivity?Cell-Mediated. 1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity: TH1 cell secretes inflammatory mediators which stimulates Tc cells. 2. 2) Direct cell-mediated cytotoxicity. cytotoxic T cells kill tissue cells (antigens) directly w/o help from antibodies
When does type 4 happen?Within 24 to 72 hours after exposure to the antigen. TB skin test 2. Viral reactions 3. Contact dermatitis (poison ivy) 4. Transplant or graft rejection
What are the systemic manifestations of inflammation?i) Pyrexia (fever) ii) Pain iii) Edema
What is the therapeutic mgmt for type 4?a) Careful monitoring b) Immunosuppressants to prevent rejection
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