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Immunity 1

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juniperk's version from 2018-03-21 02:49

Section

Question Answer
What is the basic mechanism that happens within inflammation? What does it release?Mast cell degranulation. Releases histamine
What are the 2 goals of inflammation?Defend against infection and help repair tissue
What are the 6 vascular stages of inflammation?1. Vasoconstriction 2. Cell death 3. Vasodilation 4. Increased vascular permeability 5. Loss of fluid & proteins to the spaces. 6. Stagnation of blood flow.
What is serous exudate?watery exudates with little protein. found in early inflammatory response or mild injury (ie blister).- plasma escapes and leads to swelling
What is hemorrhagic exudate? Damage to blood vessels occur, RBCs present in exudates
What is fibrinous exudate?Large amount of fibrinogen in the exudate- Creates a thick sticky mesh. Toxins will stick to it. presence of fibrin causes coagulated exudate to form over the surface (ie pericarditis, pleurisy and pneumonia)
What is membranous exudate?Develops on the mucus membrane- helps corral any toxins
What is purulent exudate?presence of large #s of dead and dying bacteria and dead and dying WBCs (esp Neutrophils) produces pus.
What are 3 things a WBC does when entering the injured tissue?1. Destroys infective organism 2. Removes damaged cells 3. Releases more inflammatory mediators to control further inflammation
What is margination?WBCs move to the outer margin of the blood vessel during an acute inflammatory response
What is emigration?WBCs move to the outer margin of the blood and enter the damaged tissue
What is pavementation?WBCs adhere to an endothelial cell adhesion molecule
What is chemotaxis?'Invitation to the party' Leads to phagocytosis
What is opsonins?Part of complement system, C3b, coat surface of material for phagocytosis. "To make tasty"
What is bradykinin?an inflammatory mediator. It is a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate, and causes blood pressure to fall. Produces pain.
What are complement proteins?Cause vasodilation and increased permeability. Promotes WBC activity (adhesion, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis)
During an acute-phase response, what does WBC release when it arrives? symptoms?Interleukins and tumor necrosis factors. Both lead to systemic effects like fever lethargy and aches
What is released from the liver?fibrinogen and c-reactive protein.
What are 3 things the immune response is based on?1. How strong the antigens are that are presented. 2. Exogenous factor- trauma or disease that the body is exposed to from the outside. 3. Endogenous- affects the immune response. (age, gender, nutrition)
How long do neutrophils last?10 hours
What type of infection is a left shift?Bacterial type infection
During a viral infection which WBC increases and which decrease?Lymphocytes increase and neutrophils decrease.
Parasitic or allergy reaction- Which WBC increases and which decrease?Eosinophils increase and neutrophils and lymphocytes decrease.
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