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Immune system

zunair's version from 2018-07-08 14:22

Section 1

Question Answer
Leukocytesformed in red bone marrow
GranulocytesType of leukocyte, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
monocytesbecome macrophages when they leave blood and enter tissues
lymphocytesB cells, T cells, natural killer cells
what is lymphatic tissueTonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, MALT, lymphatic nodules
What does lymphatic tissue houseT cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells
What do some select organs houseMacrophages
macrophagesPhagocytic cells in tissue
epithelial layers of skin and mucosal membranes house whatDendritic cells
connective tissue house whatMast cells

Section 2

Question Answer
cytokinessmall proteins that regulate immune activity
innate immunitypresent at birth, non specific
What does innate immunity containbarriers of skin, mucosal membranes, non specific internal cells
What external aspects does Innate immunity containskin, hair, mucus, earwax, secretions (salt, enzymes, acid) and normal flora
what internal aspects does innate immunity containantimicrobials, inflammation, interferons, complement, NK, phagocytes
adaptive immunityacquired, response to antigen involves T/B Cells and a particular cell responds to one foreign substance but not another
first line of defense in innate immunityskin and mucosal membrane
what is second line of defense in innate immunityinternal processes and cells

Section 3

Question Answer
Why can few microbes penetrate intact skinphysical barrier, normal flora, skin releasing antimicrobial substanes
Dendritic Cellsdestroy particles and then present fragments for antigens to T Cells
Neutrophils/Macrophagesdestroy engulfed particles
Basophils/Mast cellsPromote inflammation, release granules w chemicals that attract immune cells
Natural Killer cellsDestroy virus infected cells, bacteria infected cells, tumor cells, release cytoxic chemicals to kill, perform immune surveillance
EosinophilsAttack multicellular parasites
how do innate immune system recognize if something is foreignuse receptors to tell if they're foreign, specifically Toll like receptors
interferonsClass of cytokines that non specifically impede viral spread
Antimicrobial proteinsmolecules functioning against microbes
Complement proteinsgroup of proteins in blood serum/plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens

Section 4

Question Answer
inflammationimmediate response to ward off unwanted substances
First event in inflammationchemicals released to initiate response
2nd event in inflammationReleased chemicals cause vascular changes (Vasodilation, increase capillary permeability)
DiapedesisCells escape blood vessel walls
Chemotaxisleukocytes migrate towards chemials released from damaged, dead or pathogenic cells
3rd event in inflammationPlasma proteins delivered to site
vasodilationwidening Blood vessel and therefor decreasing BP and bring more blood to the area

Section 5

Question Answer
signs of inflammationredness and heat, swelling, pain
Feveralso called pyrexia, abnormal body temp elevation, result from release of pyrogens
adaptive immunity involves whatlymphocyte responses to an antigen
cell mediated immunityInvolving T lymphocytes
humoral immunityInvolving B lymphocytes, plasma cells and antibodies
Cell mediated immunity effectiveness on antigens in what locationInside cell
Humoral immunity effectiveness on antigens in what locationoutside cell
antigensubstance that binds a T cell or antibody

Section 6

Question Answer
Cell mediated immunity involves what activationactivation of T- Cells by a specific antigen. Each T cell is able to respond to one specific antigen
Cytoxic T cellssearches/destroys any cell that contains the specific antigen
Helper T- Cellhelp activate T- Cell by producing cytokines, activate B- Cells that recognize the pathogens antigen
Memory Cellsremain dormant after initial exposure to antigen. If same antigen becomes present at another time it responds
What do phagocytes do to help with T cellsPresent antigen fragments to T- Cells for T cell activation
Humoral immunity involves what activationActivation of b cells which triggers b cells to transform into plasma cells to secrete antibodies
How does the skeletal system and the immune system work togetherRed bone marrow is the primary lymphatic structure responsible for B lymphocyte production
How does the lymphatic system and the immune system work togetherhousing B and T lymphocytes in secondary lymphatic structures and are tested for immunocompetence in primary lymphatic structures and for maturation

Section 7

Question Answer
Thymic selectiontests for immunocompetence
Where do plasma cells circulate in until exposed to an antigenLymph and blood
Active immunityresults from direct contact w antigen and memory cells are formed for that antigen
Passive immunityAntigen obtained from another individual/animal. No memory cells formed
AIDSresult of HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) which infects and destroys helper T- Cells

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