Immune Sys & Endocrine Sys

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-05-13 04:34

Section 1

Question Answer
immune system is composed oflymphoid tissues, immune cells,, chemical that coordinate and execute responses
innate immunitynon-specific, inherited, rapid, first line of defense: external barriers, second line of defense: internal defenses
adaptive immunityspecific and memory, specific to certain pathogen, slower to develop, mediated by lymphocytes
define immunitybody's ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells
functions of immune systemremoves damaged body cells, destroys cancer cells, defends against invading pathogens
pathogensbacteria: cause tissue damage and disease by releasing enzymes/toxins that disrupt cell structure. viruses: require host cells to perform metabolism and reproduction, can cause cell death by toxic substances, destructions, cancer cells
viral invasionentry: virus invades host cell. replication: viral DNA/RNA released, replicated by host's machinery, can lay dormant -latency. shedding: viral components and nucleic acids are assembled and released by cell
allergiesresponse to allergens, increase in IgE
autoimmune diseasesimmune system attacks a person's own body
primary lymphoid tissuessites of immune cell formation and maturation, red bone marrow, thymus gland
secondary lymphoid tissuessite immune response, encapsulated: spleen & lymph nodes. unencapsulated: tonsils, mucosa-associated lymphatic tussue, gut-associated lymphatic tissue
white pulp in spleencontains immune cells that monitor blood for pathogens
red pulp in spleencontain immune cells that attack pathogen that have been swept into the lymph fluid of the lymphatic system
leukocytesformed via leukopoiesis, pluripotent stem cell diffrentiates into myeloid or lymphoid progenitor cells
leukocytosiselevated WBC count
leukopenialow WBC count
neutrophilsgranular, live 7 days, multiple lobes, destroy bacteria, pus: contains dead neutrophils, macrophages, cell debris
eosinophilsgranular, live 7 days, bilobed, allergy or parasitic infections
basophilsgranular, contain histamine: vasodilator and heparin: anticoagulant. intensify inflammatory response
monocytesagranular, live for months as macrophages, u shaped nucleus, fixed mac: remain in tissue. wandering mac: roam tissues gather at inflammation sites. dendritic cells: antigen presenting cells to lymphocytes
lymphocytesagranular, live for months, memory cells can live for years, large round nucleus, T cells, B cells, NK cells
T cellskill virus infected and cancerous cells, cell mediated immunity
B cellsdifferentiate into plasma cells and memory cells, produce and secrete antibodies, antibody mediated immunity
NK cellskill variety of cancer cells and virus infected cells, not as specific, directly lyses cell membrane
interferons inhibits mult of viruses by1. virus enters cell, triggers interferon 2. binds to receptors on uninvaded cells 3. those produce enzymes that break down virus 4. if virus enters these cells with antiviral enzymes it cant replicate
complement systemleads to lysis via osmosis. classic: uses antibodies, proteins work together with antibodies. alternative: no antibodies involved, proteins directly bind to invader

Section 2

Question Answer
complement system cascadeC1 activated > C2 activated >>C5 activated, C5-9 assemble membrane attack complex, embeds itself in surface of target cell and punctures cell membrane, hole makes membrane leaky, cell lyses
fevercauses by pyrogens, increase activity of leukocytes and effects of interferons, inhibits growth of some microbes
6 characteristics of inflammation1. vasodilation of local bv & increased bf to area 2. increased capillary permeability 3. migration of WBCs into tissue 4. clotting of fluid in interstitial spaces by fibrin 5. redness, heat, swelling 6. pain, release of prostaglandins
macrophage activationengulf pathogens and release cytokines, chemotaxins, endogenous pyrogens. detect pathogens by their toll-like receptors
mast cell activationrelease histamine which binds to histamine receptors on smooth muscle of bronchioles, causes vasoconstriction of bronchioles, vasodilation of bv. enhances inflammation
attraction of neutrophils and monocytesboth cells migrate towards infection site. margination: neutro and mono stick to endothelial lining of caps of affected tissues, cell adhesion molecules like selectin protrude from endothelial lining, selectin proteins cause WBC to slow down and roll along int vessel allowing diapedesis
activation of neutrophils and monocytesneutrophils phagocytose pathogens/cellular debris and secrete lactoferrin, binds with iron, reduces reproduction of bacteria. monocytes enlarge and wander
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDSaspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX 1 and 2 enzymes therefore inhibiting production of prostaglandins
glucocorticoidsprednisone, suppress almost all aspects of inflammatory response, reduce body's ability to resist infection
B and T cellsoriginate from stem cells in bone marrow, once mature both migrate to peripheral lymphoid tissue, undergo cell division to produce new B and T cells
antigensinduce an immune response, epitope is the antigenic deeterminant
B cell activationplasma cell or memory cell. most become plasma cells and produce antibodies like immunoglobulins. memory cells remain dormant until a person is again exposed
IgMb cell receptor, memory cell BCR, plasma cell BCR for antigen attachment. first antibody produced after infection
IgGRh antibodies, most abunant in blood, produced largely when antigen is present, crosses placenta
IgEhelps protect against parasitic worms, allergy responses, tightly bound to eosinophils, basophils
IgAsecretions of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary systems, protects internal body surfaces exposed to external environment by blocking binding of bacteria and viruses
IgDfound on surface of many b cells with IgM, function unknown
how antibodies function: PLANprecipitation: antibodies crosslink multiple antigens/cells and take it out of solution. lysis: activates complement cascade via classical pathway. attraction: antibodies IgG act as opsonins stimulating phagocytosis. neutralization: antibodies bind to toxins and prevent them from harming cells
primary v secondary responseprimary: plasma cells produce antibodies, formation takes several days, peaks at week or two after exposure. secondary: memory cells remain dormant but respond quickly if exposed a second time, usually so fast you dont know youre infected
active immunitybody produces its own antibodies, occurs naturally or with vaccinations
passive immunityantibodies made by another person, transfer of IgG antibodes from mother to fetus across placenta or IgA in breastmilk
vaccinationscontain microbes that have been altered so they will produce an immune response but not be able to harm
major histocompatibility complexglycoproteins made within each body cells and inserted into plasma membrane. MHC class 1: identify self . MHC class 2: bind with an antigen and display it
antigen presenting cells APCsengulf foreign particles, process them, present fragments on MHC class 2 proteins to helper t cells
helper t cellsactivated when APC presents antigen to t cell, secretes cytokines that help immune system response by: enhancing antibody secreting abilities, activity of cytotoxic t cells, chemotaxins
cytotoxic t cellsdestroy host cells infected with intracellular microbes. 1. virus invades host cells and breaks down its coat of proteins 2. fragment of this coat attached to newly synthesized MHC class 1 proteins 3. recognize and bind to MHC complex 4. kill cell with perforin and granzymes
suppressor t cellssuppress b cell antibody production and t cell activity, prevents excessive immune response, prevent immune system from attacking your own body

Section 3

Question Answer
hypothalamusmajor link between nervous and endocrine system, stimulates release of hormones from pituitary
pitutarymaster gland, adenohypophysis:ant pit. neurohypophysis:post pit
how are hormones transported to the pituitaryhypophyseal portal system
tropic hormoneshormones that act on another endocrine gland
pineal glandroof of 3rd ventricle of brain at midline. secretes melatonin, produced during darkness, seasonal affective disorder
thymusbehind sternum, between lungs. secretes several including thymosin, T-cell maturation, decreases size after puberty
thyroidbutterfly gland, two lobes connected by isthmus, parafollicular cells:calcitonin, follicular cells:T3 T4
goiterhypo/hyperthyroidism, iodine deficiency
adrenal cortexpyramid shaped sup aspect of kidneys. zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids, fasciulata: glutocorticoids, reticularis: androgens
mineralcorticoidsmineral homeostasis
glucocorticoidsglucose homeostasis
androgensaxillary and pubic hair growth in both sexes, libido in females
pancreas99% of cells (acinar cells) produce digestive enzymes, alpha cells: glucagon, beta cells: insulin
type 1 diabetes mellitusautoimmune, pancreas doesnt make insulin, low insulin levels, treatment: insulin injections
type 2 diabetes mellituscells become desensitized to insulin, normal/high insulin levels, treatment: diet and exercise
ovariesestrogens, progesterone, inhibin, relaxin
testestestosterone, inhibin