Immune response to infectious disease

zijimubo1's version from 2016-12-12 22:13

Section 1

Question Answer
How does mucosae protect body?Mucus contains enzymes and peptides that protect and limit infection; innate immune system chemical barrier
Why are mucosal surfaces important in immunity and infectious disease?Mucosal tissue covers many surfaces and communicates with environment. They dynamic and thus thin and vulnerable to microbial infections.
What region of SI is important for immune response? Why?lamina propria; houses macrophages, dendritic cells, effector T and B cells, and IgA producing plasma.
Name to secondary lymphoid tissue in SI.Peyer's patch and isolated lymphoid follicles
What is the role of secondary lymphoid tissue?Function to monitor the contents of intestinal lumen and initiate adaptive immune response.
What is the difference between Peyer's Patch and Isolated lymphoid follicles?Similar, however, isolated lymphoid follicles differ in composition, predominantly lymphocytes.
Network of lymphatic vessels connects the lamina propria, Peyer's Patch, and isolated lymphoid tissue to form what?mesenteryc lynmph nodes; largest nodes in body
Explain the trafficking of immune cells in the mucosal immune system.Naive lymphocytes become activated; give rise to effector cells that travel in the lymph and blood to gain access to LAMINA PROPRIA.
Where are naive T and B lymphocytes found in mucosal system? How do they travel?Peyer's Patch, isolated lymphoid follicles, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Through High Endothelial Venules (HEV)

Section 2

Question Answer
What immunoglobulin pays a role in mucosal epithelium?IgA
Name (4) roles of IgA.1) Transports toxins and pathogens back to gut lumen. 2) Neutralize antigens from endosomes. 3) Embed in mucus layer of surface where it neutralizes. 4) Bring pathogens and antigens to dendritic cells via M cells.

Section 3

Question Answer
Name two binding sites of HRV. ICAM-1 binding site; LDL binding site
Where is the binding site for ICAM-1?A "canyon" binding site formed deep in the capsid protein of HRV.
What is significance about the location of the ICAM-1 binding site of HRV?It shares a portion for the binding site of antibodies.
How does the "canyon" binding site help HRV evolve?The deep binding site allow it to keep the ICAM-1 core elements constant, while changing antigenicity by mutations of surrounding amino acids.
Explain the "molecular race war". Who wins?Immune responses influences evolution of pathogen. Human adaptive immune response impacts viral diversification. Over 100 unique serotypes.

Section 4

Question Answer
What structural components are the primary viral antigens of influenza?Neuraminidase (N) and Hemagglutinin(H)
Explain the structure of influenza virus.Lipid bilayer from host. Core protein w/ Neuraminidase and Hemagluttinin. 8 segments of RNA
H1N1 vs H5N1H1N1 (Swine) - Upper resp infection; rapid spread, rarely fatal. H5N1 (Avian) - Lower respiratory infection; slowly spread, often fatal.
What are the binding targets of influenza?Sialic acid residues of carbohydrate moieties via HEMAGLUTTININ protein.
How does Influenza infection spread throughout body?Mature influenza virions "bud" taking small part of plasma membrane containing high concentration of Neuraminidase and Hemagluttinin. Attach to adjacent cells via hemagluttinin.
What kind of response is responsible for symptoms in flu infection?Inflammatory cytokines from innate immune response
What evidence shows that innate response is responsible for symptoms of flu?Inc. IL-6 and Type 1 interferons
How flu antigens escape antibody recognition?Amino acid residues that overlap with viral attachment site are mutated.
Name to basic strategies by which influenza virus mutate away from elicited adaptive immune response.Antigenic drift and antigenic shift
What is antigenic drift?Mutation in hemagglutinin antigen so Ab's can't bind.
What is antigenic shift?Recombination of genome between two distinct forms of influenza virus.