ICT Infra

kojigabriel's version from 2017-05-18 20:10


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Boot Sequence

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Boot Sequence 1POST (power-on self-test)
Boot Sequence 2BIOS bootloader (loads kernal from storage to RAM)
Boot Sequence 3MBR (Master boot record, decides which partitions to use
Boot Sequence 4Boot Sector (using partition)
Boot Sequence 5Winload.exe


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RAID0improves speed
RAID1improves reliability
RAID3old and hardly used
RAID5 needs more than 2 disks, improves reliability


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MemoryIs work space
CPURuns programs
Disk DriveStorage
DIMMDefines dimensions of a memory module
DDR3Technology used in memory modules
MulticoreMultiple cpus in same package
MotherboardContains most of the main parts of a computer
PCIE Fast expansion slot
Bus Data and control signals
UFSUsed on DVDs
32bit CPUCan handle up to 4GB memory
North BridgeConnected directly to the CPU and is responsible for tasks that require high speed
Socketwhere CPU is installed
S-ATA is faster and narrower thanP-ATA
How many disks connected in one P-ATA?Two
On hard disk tracks arecircular
Chipset defines manyfeatures of the motherboard
CD and DVD disks have onespiral formed track
Blu-Ray has larger capacity thanDVD
SSD disks are faster thanhard disks and have same interface

FIle Methods


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FAT162GB limit
NTFSNative filesystem of Windows
Ext4Linux Filesystem
FAT32Used in large USB sticks
HyperthreadingSome parts of CPU are doubled
CacheIncreases speed
512is normal sector size
ATX definesdimensions of a motherboard
Pagefileis a method of saving temporary information to your hard drive instead of RAM
Virtual memoryMemory space of application
MBRpartition table. master boot record
Partition Table is max2 TiB
how many primary partitions can there be?1-4 primary partitions
how are partitions seen in new versions of Windows?as directories
Windows view hard disks as?separate partitions
File fragmentation slows downhard disk
hard disk tracks are divided intosectors
BIOS comes withthe motherboard
Data in RAM is erased when the computer isswitched off
If the computer is running low on memorydata is moved to the hard disk
UEFI can emulateBIOS
UEFI can usesecure boot. UEFI is interface in OS that is read only.
GPT can have up to128 partition entries. GPT is a layout of the partition on hard drive.
In multitaskinga single processor is used to run several processes
GNU license terms 1Distributer of modified SW must apply same license terms as received from licencor
GNU license terms 2Licensee may modify, distribute and charge for modified SW
What actions can you perform in Linux to a file under “read” & “execute” and “read” & “write”?modify content and list content
What NOT to do when installing Ubuntu on computer with 8 GB ram?reserve as much swap space as possible. Swap space should be 1/4 of RAM.
OS kernel handlesProcess and Memory management
Mount point for files in new Linux installation? /
Social media services arenot typical cloud services
VirtualBox issuitable software for so called OS virtualization
Virtual Machineoperating system using the resources of the host computer
hardware-based virtualization does not need a separatehost operating system
Cloud Storage is recommended forschool work
Workstation virtualizationremoves the need to update the environment
virtualization meanshardware are divided in multiple resources in virtualized software, called guest systems
virtualized environments can besetup by anyone


Question Answer
to convert IP address into network address, subnet maskuses 0 to mark out number series. 255 keeps the corresponding number series
Virtual LANdoes not need a physical switch and can replace physical routers to broadcast information
Terminal which is connected to a switch port is NOTsharing port transmission rate with other terminals in same switch
main function of mobile networks wasspeech communication, Mobile network users share base station's data transmission capacity
DNS(Domain Name System) hierarchy is Root Server, Top Level Domain and Authoritative Name Server, changes name into IP address
DNS does notknows the DNS name to the corresponding IP address and returns the response to the DNS request
Most commonly used local area network cable type?unshielded twisted pair
Port address1-65535
network mask does notcalculate IP address from network
TCPresponsible for transmitting, receiving packets between two ports, reliable transfer, transmission rate control and data packet sequence (and re routing)
connection contains information on both transmitting and receiving end of ports. reliable transfer, transmission rate control, data packets sequence handling and data packet re-routing.
Destination portindicates to which service (application) data traffic is intented to
Simultaneous connections to different services can beseparated with different port numbers
TCP does notcarry port number or data packet re-routing
UDPUser Datagram Protocol. Always carrys port number and is better for transmitting data in video/voice over local network. does checksum for port numbers.
A private IP address needs to be changed intoa public IP address when accessing the Internet
How many ports are in a typical switch?24 and 48 ports
WEP isleast safest encryption method
Which are "generic" network types?WAN and LAN
network layer protocolsIPv4, IPv6, will be used in parallel
Router doesrouting data tables via IP packets, enables automatic network routing changes if needed and routes protocols to other routers if network state changes,
Router does notroute data traffic between computers located in the same local area networ
IPV432 bits, is presented as four series of numbers with a point (.) between numbers
network is operating in a limited areaLAN
IPV6128 bits, may be given in shorter form where leading zeros in address may be omitted
IPInternet Protocol. A format of how data is transmitted over network. ensures that packets reach their destination. works flexibly on top of other transmission systems.
Private IP's,, and extend to which numbers?,, /
Unicastmost common type of transmission, sends info to single destination
Multicastsends info to multiple destinations based on IP groupings
Broadcastsends info to all destinations connected in LAN
All LAN endpoints have what kind of bit address?48 bit MAC
DHCP(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) provides IP information to endpoints that are connecting to the network, usually LAN
NATNetwork Address Translation, translates IP address between private IP address and public IP address

Protocol Stack

Question Answer
Application (Application Layer)HTTP, SMTP, DNS, DHCP
Transport (Transport Layer)TCP, UDP
Network (Internet Layer)IPV4, IPV6
Data Link (Network Access Layer)Ethernet, WLAN
Data Protocol EncapsulationEach new layer of data takes information from the previous layer


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Confidentialitypersonal info
Integritymodify content
Availabilityusage of services or data
Need to knowper user
Least privilegeonly info to do task
Separate of dutiesno person should have access unless approved
How to calculate risk?probability * how serious it is
Low Risk1
Average Risk2
Insignificant threat level 1, no action needed
Low threat level2, no action needed that make additional cost, situation will be monitored
Moderate threat level3 - 4, must take action to reduce risk within timespan. cost must be considered.
Significant threat level6, risk must be reduced and should be initiated quickly, activities involved should be reduced
Intolerable threat level9, risk must be removed quick with measures and operations must halt
Security trianglesecurity, availability, cost
RIsk Analysis Typesqualitive (it data) and quantitive (finance institution)



Question Answer
Which of area of security has traditionally been protected by encryption?Confidence
Which area of security is traditionally protected by duplicating systems?Availability
Which area of security is attacked when passwords are hacked?Confidentiality
Which area of security area is attacked when being counterfeited money?Integrity
Which of these can be hacked with Rainbow Tables? - a) kissa1!*, b) k!is*s1aBoth
On what basis "firewall" is a bad password?It is any word in any language or a simple variation of words
Revocation list of certificates can be whenAn external party finds out the public key
The key management is a problem withSymmetric cryptography method, because both users must have access to the key through a different medium
Public-key Cryptography is also known as Asymmetric cryptography
A message encrypted with symmetric key can be opened, with? the same symmetric key, by which it is encrypted
Which cryptography method is slower?Public key cryptography method, which Asymmetric
The sender of a message can verify their identity to a recipient usingThe sender's private key
The message is encrypted with the sender's private key. What's key is used when the message is decrypted?The sender's public key
The sender of a message ecrypts a message using the recipients public key
The recipient of a message can decrypt a message using his ownprivate key
In practical solutions, symmetric cryptography is used to secureThe data content confidentiality
Your server is cracked and a hacker finds a password file that contains passwords hash values and salt values. How can hacker find out the actual passwords?brute force
Symmetric vs. AsymmetricAsymmetric encryption is a method of encrypting using a public key, then doing a decryption using a private key. Symmetric encryption uses one key, the same key is used for encryption and decryption.