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Hypertension

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jennifer12345's version from 2017-12-09 19:43

Section 1

Question Answer
General nonblack populationthiazides, CCB, ACEI, or ARB
General black populationthiazides or CCB
Heart failurediuretic, b-blocker, ACEI, ARB, aldosterone antagonist
Post-MIb-blocker, ACEI, aldosterone antagonist
High coronary disease riskdiuretic, b-blocker, ACEI, CCB
Diabetesdiuretic, b-blocker, ACEI, ARB, CCB
CKDACEI, ARB
Recurrent stroke preventiondiuretic, ACEI
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Section 2

Question Answer
What should you avoid to treat HTN in people with asthma, COPD, PAD?b-blocker
What should you avoid to treat HTN in the elderly?centrally acting agents and alpha blockers
What should you avoid to treat HTN in pregnancy?ACE inhibitors and ARBS
What should you avoid as monotherapy for African Americans?b-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs
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Section 3

Question Answer
Mechanism of action: thiazide diureticsacts in ascending loop of henle, inhibits tubular resorption of Na and Cl ions via inhibition of NaCl transport mechanism
Mechanism of action: potassium sparing diurecticsinhibits Na channel in the collecting duct
Mechanism of action: aldosterone antagonistsinhibits aldosterone receptors which leads to increased Na excretion
Mechanism of action: loop diureticsact at the loop of henle, inhibits Na-K-Cl channel
Mechanism of action: ACE inhibitorsinhibit conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, prevents breakdown of bradykinin
Mechanism of action: ARBblock binding angiotensin II to receptors which prevents vasoconstriction & aldosterone release
Mechanism of action: Aliskirendirect renin inhibitor
Mechanism of action: CCBblock slow calcium channels in cardiac & smooth muscle cells
Mechanism of action: beta blockersblock beta receptors
Mechanism of action: alpha 1 blockersblockage of receptors causing dilatation arterioles & veins, relax prostate & bladder neck smooth muscle
Mechanism of action: alpha 2 blockers (central)stimulation of inhibitory alpha receptors in CNS
Mechanism of action: alpha 2 blockers (peripheral)inhibit release of norepinephrine from peripheral nerves
Mechanism of action: direct vasodilatorsrelaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle, decreased PVR (increase in HR & renin release)
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Section 4

Question Answer
Adverse effects of hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazonedizziness, drowsiness, nausea, GI irritation, electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, HA, rash
Adverse effects of triamterene, amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenonehyperkalemia, nausea/vomiting, weakness, headache, fatigue
Adverse effects of furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide, ethacrynic acidhypokalemia, dehydration, hypomagnesemia, ototoxicity, hyperuricemia
Adverse effects of captopril, lisinopril, ramipril, benazepril, enalapril, quinaprilrash, cough, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, leukopenia, myalgia, angioedema, photosensitivity
Adverse effects of losartan, valsartan, candesartan, irbesartanno cough, rash, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, leukopenia, myalgia, angioedema, photosensitivity
Adverse effects of Aliskirenhyperkalemia, hypotension
Adverse effects of nifedipine, amlodipine, felodipine, nicardipinerash, stevens-johnson syndrome, AV block, arthralgias, impotence, ecchymosis
Adverse effects of propranolol, carteolol, nadolol, metoprolol, atenololbradycardia, depression, impotence, arrhythmias, elevated LFTs, hyperlipidemia, dizziness, fatigue
Adverse effects of prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, alfuzosin, tamsulosinmarked hypotension, urinary frequency, dry mouth, constipation, HA, CNS depression, drowsiness
Adverse effects of hydralazine, minoxidiltachycardia, HA, constipation, N/V, angina and hair growth
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Section 5

Question Answer
Cautions with hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazonemay predispose to gout, possibly worsen lupus, lead to hypercalcemia
Cautions with triamterene, amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenonerenal insufficiency, diabetes, those on ACEI/NSAIDS/K supplement
Cautions with furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide, ethacrynic acidgout, may cause impaired glucose tolerance, additive hypotension, renal disease
Cautions with captopril, lisinopril, ramipril, benazepril, enalapril, quinaprilrenal insufficiency, liver disease
Cautions with nifedipine, amlodipine, felodipine, nicardipinemay increase CHF symptoms, caution with b-blockers
Cautions with propranolol, carteolol, nadolol, metoprolol, atenololhepatic of renal impairment, CHF, heart block, bronchospastic disease, mask signs hypoglycemia
Cautions with alpha blockersrebound hypertension with abrupt withdrawal clonidine, additive hypotension, syncope
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Section 6

Question Answer
Effects of ACE inhibitorsdecreased SVR, increased renal perfusion, prevention of ventricular remodeling
Effects of CCBdecreased SVR, decreased inotropic effects, decreased automaticity in SA & AV node
Effects of b-blockersdecreased HR, decreased force of contraction, decreased renin secretion
Effects of alpha 2 blockersdecreased PVR, decreased HR, decreased renal vascular resistance
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