benryan95's version from 2015-10-05 16:01

Section 1

Question Answer
In Europe, what are the boundaries for stage 1 hypertension?140-159/90-99 mmHg
In Europe, what are the boundaries for stage 2 hypertension?160-179/100-109 mmHg
In Europe, what are the boundaries for stage 3 hypertension?180+/110+ mmHg
What is the most common cause/type of hypertension?Essential/primary hypertension
What lifestyle factors are thought to provoke the development of essential hypertension?Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, excess alcohol intake, high sodium intake
Name 3 vascular causes of secondary hypertension?Pre-eclampsia, renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the aorta
Name 5 renal causes of secondary hypertensionglomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic kidneys, chronic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy
Name 6 endocrine causes of secondary hyperetension?Phaeochromocytoma, hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism
What is Phaeochromocytoma?A neuroendocrine tumour of the adrenal glands - hypertension results from excess (nor)epinpehrine
What does aldosterone do to sodium, water and potassium retension/excretion?Aldosterone causes sodium and water retention, and potassium excretion
What is Cushing's syndrome?Excess production of cortisol, it enhances vasoconstriction --> hypertension
Name 3 toxic causes of hypertensionChronic alcohol excess, medications (oral contraceptives, long term use of NSAIDs), illicit drug use (cocaine and amphetamines)

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 5 most common manifestations of end target organ damage of hypertension?Left ventricular hypertrpohy, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertensive retinopathy + nephropathy
What is recommended to document true hypertension outside the clinic setting before therapy is initiated?Ambulatory 24 hour blood pressure monitoring or regular home monitoring
Name 4 features that may lead to a suspicion of secondary hypertension instead of primary?Young patient (<40 years), rapid onset of hypertension, sudden change in blood pressure, resistant hypertension
What is hypertensive retinopathy characterised by? (4 things)Arteriolar narrowing, arteriolar venous nipping, cotton wool spots on retina, flame haemorrhages or pappiloedema
What screening tests are useful to use to look for complications of hypertension?ECG, chest x-ray, blood tests (u+e, creatinine, randomb blood sugar, cholesterol), urine dip test (glycosuria, proteinuria)

Section 3

Question Answer
When is a calcium channel blocker part of step 1 antihypertensive treatment?In people aged over 55, or in black people of african or caribbean family origin of any age
When is an ACE inhibitor or low-cost ARB part of step 1 antihypertensive treatment?In people aged under 55 who aren't black of african or caribbean family origin
When is a thiazide-like diuretic used as part of step 1 antihypertensive treatment?In people aged over 55, or are black of african or caribbean family origin who can't tolerate a calcium channel blocker, or if there is high risk of heart failure
What drugs can be added on in step 2/3 of antihypertensive treatment?a CCB, ACE inhibitor/ARB, or thiazide like diuretic
What drug should be considered as further diuretic therapy in resistant hypertension?Spirinolactone
Name 4 hypertensive emergenciesHypertensive Encephalopathy, Hypertensive left ventricular failure, acute aortic dissection, malignant/accelerated hypertension

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