Hydrometeorological Hazards - THUNDERSTORMS & EL NINO LA NINA

baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-03-04 08:22

Section 1

Question Answer
Thunderstormsviolent, transient type of weather disturbance associated with thousands of meters of tall cumulonimbus clouds
Thunderstormsusually involves lightning, thunder, strong winds, intense rainfall , occasionally tornadoes and hail
(1) MOISTURE in the lower atmosphere to produce clouds and PRECIPITATION during storm formation, (2) Unstable rising mass of WARM AIR, (3) STRONG UPWARD CURRENT OF AIR (updraft) to force moisture to higher, colder levels of the atmosphere3 Requirements for Thunderstorm formation
(1) Towering Cumulus/Developing Stage, (2) Mature Stage, (3) Dissipating Stage3 Cycle of Thunderstorms
5-8 KMHeight of Towering Cumulus/Developing Stage
8-16 KMHeight of Mature Stage
8-11 KMHeight of Dissipating Stage
Under the right conditions, rainfall from thunderstorms causes flash flooding, killing more people each year than hurricanes, tornadoes or lightningWHAT KINDS OF DAMAGE CAN A THUNDERSTORM CAUSE?
Static electricityAn electrical charge created by friction which does not move unless motivated by an oppositely charged object
LightningAbrupt natural, visible, high-voltage electrical discharge which takes place when positive and negative charges join or between a cloud and the ground
ThunderAcoustic effect of a sudden expansion of air caused by heat released during lightning strike
(1) cloud-to-ground (CG), (2) intra-cloud (IC)2 types of lightning
cloud-to-ground lightningflashes of lightning between a thunderstorm and earth
intra-cloud lightning flashes of lightning within a thunderstorm
Distance= sound interval /3Calculating Danger’s Distance: Flash to Bang Method
Every 3 seconds delay between lightning flash and thunder is equal to a distance of 1 kmCalculating Danger’s Distance: Flash to Bang Method
(1) Estimated death toll - 2,000 people, (2) Direct effect, (3) Indirect effectEffects of lightning strikes to humans
Direct effecthigh voltage electric shock
Direct effectExternal and internal burns
Direct effectDamage organs and nervous system
Indirect effectshock wave and hearing damage
lighting strike produces acid - Cause of fire Effects of thunderstorm to infrastructure
power, telephone cables , satellites and antennas may be hit by lightning may result to power surgesEffects of thunderstorm to technology
Thunderstorm watchA thunderstorm is possible in the are you live. Be prepared to move indoors
Thunderstorm warning A thunderstorm is happening in the are you live. You should be indoors at this time
All thunderstorms produce lightning and are dangerous.Facts about Thunder Storm
Lightning can strike more than 25 miles (40 km) away from any rainfall. Many deaths from lightning occur ahead of the storm because people wait until the last minute before seeking shelter.Facts about Thunder Storm
Lightning can strike well beyond the audible range of thunder.Facts about Thunder Storm
Lightning injuries can lead to permanent disabilities or death. On average, 20% of strike victims die; 70% of survivors suffer serious long term effects.Facts about Thunder Storm
Look for dark cloud bases and increasing wind.Facts about Thunder Storm
NO PLACE outdoors is safe during a lightning storm.Facts about Thunder Storm
Tornadois a narrow, violently rotating column of air that extends from the base of a thunderstorm to the ground.
Tornadoare the most violent of all atmospheric storms.
TornadoRotate counterclockwise at a speed of 500 km/h
Water SpoutSame as tornadoes , the only difference is the rotating column of wind moves over a body of water

Section 2

Question Answer
El Nino Southern OscillationENSO meaning
EL NIÑOIt occurs in the Pacific basin every 2-9 years
EL NIÑOIt usually starts between December to February
EL NIÑOOnce established, it lasts until the first half of the following year; however, at times it may last longer
EL NIÑOIt exhibits phase-locking in annual cycles, which means rainfall fluctuations associated with it tend to recur at the same time of the year
EL NIÑOIt usually has a biennial cycle or is often preceded and/or followed by La Niña
EL NIÑOTrade winds are weak allowing warm surface water along equator to pile up in coast of South America
(1) Delayed onset of the rainy season, (2) Early termination of the rainy season, (3) Weak monsoon activity, (4) Weak tropical cyclone activity, (5) Can bring drought or dry spell5 CLIMATIC INDICATORS OF EL NIÑO IN THE PHILIPPINES
(1) severely affects the agricultural sector and both water, food, and power supply in the country, (2) can bring massive drought to the countryEffects of El Niño
La NiñaTrade winds are stronger
La NiñaThe stronger trade winds push warm waters to farther to West in the Tropical Pacific
(1) build up of cool waters in the equatorial Eastern Pacific, (2) usually brings heavy rains that trigger floods and landslidesEffects of La Niña
(1) Loss of agricultural and fishing livelihoods, (2) Displacement from homes, (3) Prevalence of water-borne diseases, (4) Isolation of communitiesPotential impacts of La Niña
(1) unusual warming of sea surface temperature in central equatorial Pacific and eastern equatorial Pacific, (2) occurs every 2-9 years, (3) between December to February, (4) lasts until the first half of the following year4 CHARACTERISTICS OF EL NIÑO
(1) Diarrhea, (2) Cholera, (3) Skin disease, (4) Heat stroke, (5) Paralytic shell fish poisoning5 Health Problems of El Niño
(1) Prolonged unusual cooling (at least -0.5◦C) of sea surface, (2) Lasts from 1 to 3 years, (3) brings heavy rains that trigger floods and land slides, more tropical cyclones3 Characteristics of La Niña
possibility to grow crops in mountainous areas and those areas that are unreachable by irrigation. Effects of La Nina
ENSO-neutralPeriod when neither El Niño and La Niña occurs
ENSO-neutralTransition period between El Niño and La Niña
ENSO-neutralSea surface temperatures and atmospheric wind patterns are close to long term average conditions
(1) Gastroenteritis, (2) Cholera, (3) Hepatitis A, (4) Typhoid fever, (5) Leptospirosis, (6) Dengue and Malaria, (7) Injuries and accidents, (8) ElectrocutionHealth Problems of La Niña
(1) Monitoring & (2) Adaptation Strategies- Ensuring water and food security ENSO Event Preparation and Adaptation Strategies
National ENSO early Warning and Monitoring Systemmeaning of NEEWMS
Southern Oscillation Index and NEEWMSFor monitoring ENSO
(1) Planting drought tolerant rice, (2) Planting drought resistant crops such as sweet potatoes, cassava, etc. (3) Use water saving technologies and discovering new water supply sources, (4) Employing weather modification, (5) Legislation support, (6) Importation of staple food crop6 For ensuring water and food security during El Niño
(1) Planting submergence tolerant food crops, (2) Adjusting the planting calendar, (3) Repair of infrastructure, (4) Drainage of excessive water, (5) Use of mechanical dryers 5 For ensuring water and food security during La Niña

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