Hydro meteorological Hazards (TYPHOON)

baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-03-09 19:05

Section 1

Question Answer
Tropical CycloneProduct of evaporation from ocean/ sea that forms clouds sometimes with intense cyclonic circulations
Tropical Cyclonerapidly rotating storm system characterized by warm a low-pressure center, a closed lowlevel atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain
(1) Tropical Depression, (2) Tropical Storm, (3) Typhoon, (4) Super TyphoonTypes of Tropical Cyclones
Tropical Depressionwind speed up to 62 kph
Tropical Stormwind speed ranging from 63-118 kph
Typhoonwind speed greater than 119 to 219kph
Super Typhoonwind speed exceeding 220 kph
Tropical Depressionfirst appearance of a lowered pressure and organized circulation in the center of the thunderstorm complex occurs
Tropical StormProblem is heavy rain fall
Tropical Stormstorm itself becomes more organized and begins to become more circular in shape -- resembling a typhoon.
TyphoonSevere weather disturbances characterized by strong winds and heavy rains which revolves a central low pressure area
Typhoondevelops in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean or the South China Sea
TyphoonOrigin: bagyo, after a 1911 storm in the city of Baguio had a record rainfall of 46 inches within a 24-hour period
Super TyphoonMore intense than typhoon
(1) Philippines is located in the NW Pacific Ocean or basin, (2) Activity lowest in May and highest during August, (3) Average of 19 typhoons , (4) 6-9 will make landfallSeasonal Variability of Typhoons
Form in northern and southern hemisphere at latitudes 5 to 30 away from the equatorTropical Cyclone Formation (latitude)
Ocean which water temperatures reach at least 26 ◦C to depth more than 60 metersTropical Cyclone Formation (temperature)
Coriolis effectDescribes deflection of an object’s motion due to Earth’s rotation about its axis
Coriolis effectWinds blow counterclockwise on the Northern Hemisphere
Coriolis effectWinds blow clockwise on the Southern hemisphere
(1) Eye, (2) Eye Wall, (3) RainbandsTropical Cyclone Structure:
EyeArea with the lowest atmospheric pressure
Eyepart of cyclone that is 20 -65 km wide
EyeWinds are weak
EyeTemperature is warm
EyeSky is clear
Eye wallSurrounds the eye
Eye wallReach as high as 15 km above mean sea level
Eye wallStrongest winds
Eye wallHeavy rains and turbulence
RainbandsSpiraling strips of cloudsin the fringes of a tropical cyclone associated with rain fall
Result of the atmosphere’s natural tendency to maintain equilibrium by redistributing heat through wind from the equatorial regions to the polar regionsWhy do Tropical Cyclones Form?
(1) Balance in nature, (2) Replenish ground water, surficial water and dam water, (3) Flora and fauna of the Philippines are heavy reliant for source of water3 Importance of Tropical Cyclones
(1) Strong winds, (2) Storm Surge, (3) Heavy RainsEffects of Tropical Cyclones
Strong windsCovers a much larger area during tropical cyclones, cause most obvious damage
Strong windsWinds are strongest in the eye wall
Strong windsIt slows down when typhoon made its landfall
Storm SurgeLocalized unusual increase of sea water level above predicted tide level
Storm SurgeHappens because of intense winds and lower atmospheric pressure
Storm SurgeResult of more slow moving and more intense cyclone
Heavy RainsOccurs in tropical cyclones of lower intensity.
Heavy RainsFlooding due to heavy rains is usually worse during tropical depression and storms
(1) Determining Areas Prone to Typhoon Related Disasters, (2) Implementing legislation involve land use planning, zoning and building standards, (3) Measures for Mitigating Destructive Effects of Typhoons
PAGASA has a very important role for forecasting and observing tropical cyclones
PAGASAHas its own system in naming tropical cyclone
Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo-Typhoon Center of Japan Meteorological AgencyIn charge of issuance of official warning in the Western Pacific Ocean and South China Sea Region
(1) People can continue activity or business, (2) Highly advised to listen to the latest updates of PAGASA every 6 hours , (3) Disaster preparedness units activated, (4) Those living or working near coastal areas should be aware of large waves to develop4 Precautionary Measures Signal No. 1
(1) Dangerous for small sea crafts to sail, (2) People should be updated, (3) Secure properties, (4) Disaster preparedness agencies should alert all communities4 Precautionary Measures Signal No. 2
(1) Dangerous to sea crafts and air travel, (2) Make sure you stay on a sturdy house or building, (3) Look for evacuation center, (4) Avoid staying on low lying areas, (5) All classes are suspended5 Precautionary Measures Signal No. 3
(1) Postponement of all travels and outdoors activities, (2) Complete evacuation, (3) High chance that the eye of the storm will pass through, (4) Disaster organizations responding immediately to calamity4 Precautionary Measures Signal No. 4 & 5

Section 2

Question Answer
Signal #1Lead time: 36
Signal #1Winds (KPH): 30-60
Signal #1Impacts of wind: no to very light damage
Signal #2Lead time: 24
Signal #2Winds (KPH): 61-120
Signal #2Impacts of wind: light to moderate damage
Signal #3Lead time: 18
Signal #3Winds (KPH): 121-170
Signal #3Impacts of wind: moderate to heavy damage
Signal #4 & 5Lead time: 12
Signal #4 Winds (KPH): 171-220
Signal #4 Impacts of wind: heavy to very heavy damage
Signal #5Winds (KPH): 220 and above
Signal #5Impacts of wind: very heavy to widespread damage

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