Human Sex Ch.8

jmlehman's version from 2016-01-24 17:12


Question Answer
Genderthe social construction of femininity and masculinity
• Gender identityones subjective sense of being a man (boy) or a woman (girl). This sense is usually acquired by the age of 3
• Gender rolea set of culturally specific norms concerning the expected behaviors and attitudes of men and women
• Chromosomesrod shaped structures containing the genetic material that determines a person’s inherited characteristics
• Wolffian duct chromosomesa primitive duct system found in embyros that, if allowed to develop, become the male reproductive system
• Mullerian duct systema primitive duct system found in embryos, which, if allowed to develop, becomes the female reproductive system.
• Mullerian duct-inhibiting substancea chemical secreted by the testes during embryotic development that causes the mullerian ducts to shrink and disappear
• Disorders of sex developmentindividuals with a combination of male and female anatomical features, or in which chromosomal sex in inconsistent with anatomical sex
• Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)a condition in girls in which the adrenal glands excrete too much testosterone during fetal development, causing masculinization. This includes enlargement of the clitoris and labia, so that at birth the genitals are sometimes mistaken for those of a boy. Also called adrenogenital syndrome
• Androgen insensitivity syndromea condition in which the testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone during male embryotic development, but the tissues do not respond to it. As a result, a clitoris, labia, and a short vagina develop, but the internal female structures do not develop because the testicles still secrete Mullerian duct-inhibitory substances
• DHT deficiency syndromea type of androgen insensitivity syndrome in which, because testosterone is not converted into dihydrotestosterone, boy’s external genitals do not develop properly. Development occurs at puberty with the rise in testosterone.
• Gender dysphoria :“a strong desire to be of the opposite gender or an instance that he or she is of the other gender.”
Question Answer
• Transgenderedan individual whose gender identity and gender roles are opposite of those that society expects based on his or her anatomy
• Transsexualadults with gender dysphoria who desire to surgically change their anatomical sex
• Identificationtwo meanings 1. The adoption of the sex roles of the same-sex parent of the child 2. In advertising, to identify or relate to a product
• Imitationfollowing the behaviors of someone taken as one’s model
• Gender constancythe knowledge that ones gender is constant and will not change. This knowledge is usually acquired by age 6 or 7
• Evolutionary (sociobiological) theoryin reference to sex difference in human behavior, states that the behavioral differences are due to the different reproductive pressures men and women faced over thousands of generations.
• Sociocultural theorystates that the psychological difference between men and women are a social construction
• Gender-role stereotypesoversimplified, preconceived beliefs about the gender roles of men and women
• Androgynythe ability of an individual to display a variety of personality characteristics, both masculine and feminine, depending on whether a trait or behavior is appropriate in a given situation. It is often viewed as a positive characteristic that gives an individual greater adaptability.
• Instrumentala personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on “getting the job done”
• Expressive a personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on “an affective concern for the welfare of others”
• Socializationthe process of internalizing society’s beliefs; the manner in which a society shapes individual behaviors and expectations of behaviors
• Gender schemesideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with their enviroment
• Fa’afafinein the way of a women
• Klinefelters syndrome1 out of every 660 male births, there is extra X chromosomes
• Turners syndromeoccurs when there is only one X chromosome
• Two spiritman/ women in native American language
• Phallic stageages 3 to 5 when gender identitiy od learned
• Female Oedipus complexwhen a female realizes she does not have a penis and gets mad
• Unindifferentiateda person with low male and female characteristics