Human Infectious Disease Exam 4 Part one

achapss's version from 2017-05-03 01:19


Question Answer
How is malaria transmittedbite from protozoa of plasmodium falciparum mosquito
What is the cycle of the malarial protozoa during infection?bite includes spit with blood anticoagulant and sporozoites, sporozoites then infect the liver cells and mature into replicating daughter cells called morozoites, morozoites infect RBCs and eat the hemoglobin continuing to reproduce and then exploding into the blood (here hemolytic disease develops and we see symptoms), the morozoites then become gamete cells and the process continues
Hemolytic diseasedisease in which there is low RBC count, fatigue and fever
What are the symptoms of malariaappearing 10-16 days post infection, symptoms are fever, chills, nausea, in response to episodic levels of protozoa in the blood
Upper Respiratoryeverything above larynx includes sinuses, mouth, nose, throat, pharynx
Lower Respiratoryeverything below the larynx includes lungs, alveoli, trachea, bronchi bronchioles
What are the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system?cilia, mucus, alveoli
Alveoli functionsite of gas exchange in the lungs, dependent on a small distance for diffusion, protected by macrophage population that destroys and invades pathogens
Pharyngitissore throat, caused by either viruses or irritations as mucus fluctuation, two possible infections include fusobcaterium necrophorum and strep pyrogenes
Fusobacterium Necrophorumpharyngitis that can cause serious issues if it spills into the blood = sepsis
Streptococcus Pyrogenescommon opportunistic infection pharyngitis, asymptomatic carriers commonly don't display strep, can lead to fatal complications if goes undetected
What makes Streptococcus Pyrogenes highly virulent?it has the ability to present as "self" antigens on cell surfaces, special polysaccharide that can inhibit digestion by lysozyme, toxin secretions
Rhinitiscommon cold causes by 200+ CoV and rhinitis viruses, no known treatment, only dangerous to those with asthma as it can prompt a secondary infection
Sinusitisinflux in mucus causing opportunistic infection starting as cold or allergies, can be bacterial or fungal
Ear infectionrare in adults, common in children due to shape of head and soft skull easy to access inner ear, same as sinusitis, fluid build up and inflammation can rupture ear drum
Whooping Coughpertussis, causes by bordetella pertussis, uncontrollable fatal cough that can crack ribs causing internal bleeding and tissue damage, vaccine not as successful as we had once thought
Pneumoniagenerally opportunistic, build up of fluid in the lungs and alveoli can be both viral and fungal
Viral Pneumoniamild, walking pneumonia
S. Pneumoniae infectionpneumonia opportunistic, vaccine as a child, usually a winter infection
Legionella Pneumophilialegionaries disease, spread via AC droplets and cooling tanks, resistant to chlorine common in hotels and close communities
Hantaviruspneumonia infection, sporadic in the US, aerosolized feces and urine from rodents
Why is influenza so virulent?SSRNA virus, skips DNA step and mutates quickly, also enveloped
What are the two major Antigens of influenza?Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase
Hemagglutininbinds and docks to host cell receptor, lower mutation rate influenza antigen
Neuraminidasevirulence factor, influenza antigen, digests mucus from surface of respiratory cells
Antigenic Driftseasonal mutations leading to a change in surface antigens and a wide host range "re-mix"
Antigenic Shiftmuch more dangerous to the human population mutation "swap" of RNA strands to create a new virus mixing with other existing viruses from pigs and birds etc
How does influenza infect?when mucus production is down and dry, virus attaches to ciliated cells lining the respiratory tract
When is the flu season?october to april
What causes tuberculosismycobacterium, only identifiable by acid fast staining
Why is tuberculosis so dangerouscan live on surfaces for up to 6 months, susceptible in areas with lack of fresh air, medical care, poor nutrition, close living conditions
How does the tuberculosis pathogen infect?it targets macrophages having them take it in and intending to engulf and destroy, inhibits the merging of the phagosome and lysozome, replicates in the phagosome and escapes to spread leaving calcified walls of cells in surrounding area in the lungs
Tuberculosis treatmentvitamin D for immune response, 6-9 month antibiotics successful if used early on, patient compliance is an issue
Multi drug resistantdoesn't respond to any drug
Regular TBslow doubling time around 2-4 days, antibiotic must be present for a long time in the body

section 2

Question Answer
entericof the GI tract
What are the accessory glands of the GI tract?liver, pancreas, gallbladder, salivary glands
Small intestineadds digestive fluids, finishes digestion, absorbs nutrients to the blood
Large Intestineabsorbs as much liquid as possible and compacts feces
Liverfilters absorbed products and stores extra nutrients regulating body and keeping it safe
Nauseainspecific symptoms of GI tract many causes
Vomittingsymptom of GI tract, pathogen has effected the stomach or beginning of the small intestine
Diarrheasymptom of the GI tract where the pathogen affects the end of the small or the large intestine, defined as 3+ loose stools in 24 hrs caused 1/3 by tainted foods and 2/3 disease
Dysentaryimmense ejection of fecal matter usually including blood, ejection irritation
Dehydrationcomplication of the GI tract where not eating or drinking or the loan water is lost to the process of digestion
Salmonella Entericanormal chicken GI, motile and hardy pathogen needs high temp to be killed and can survive the cold, fijmbraie adhere to the small intestine and inhibit water transport causes typhoid fever and salmonellosis
Typhoid Feverfecal to oral transmission between humans, can be deadly as diarrhea worsens and fever, can be asymptomatic, affects the gallbladder by hiding in it and causing recurring infection
Salmonellosisinfects and kills cells in the small intestine, diarrhea cramps and fever can also come from reptiles
Shigellafamily of E. coli, non motile, utilizes shiga toxin colonizing large intestinal cells and bringing bacteria into the blood making cells rupture and bleed causing dysentary, spread fecal orally, fatal due to blood loss and dehydration
E. coliopportunistic pathogen, initially part of normal biota, can acquire gene for shiga toxin and then has a very low infectious dose fecal to oral route
Clostridium Difficilepart of the normal large intestine microbiota, highly antibiotic resistant, difficult to treat because even when killed off rest of the bacterial populations revamp and lead to diarrhea and perforated intestine, fecal transplants
Rotavirusdiarrhea causing dSRNA virus common in children vaccine treatable
Adenovirusdiarrhea causing dsDNA virus can also cause colds
Norovirusdiarrhea causing virulent virus
Helminth caused diarrheaassortment of worms, blood reveals elevated levels of eosinophils
Hepatitisinflammation of the liver caused by an array of viruses, can also be noninfectious with low immune system and alcohol or drug abuse, can be ABCE
Hep A and Emild disease via fecal to oral route, short lived jaundice and flu like symptoms
Hep Btransmitted sexually and vertically via the blood, very hearty can survive in dried blood and the cold, needles, toothbrush, can treat with vaccination and booster IRF therapy and antivirals
HEP Csilent epidemic, symptoms are late onset, most common reason for liver transplant in the US, no vaccine, transmitted via needle sharing and blood transfusion, 75% remain infected indefinitely
Food poisoningcauses by toxin released by microbe rather than microbe itself, usually more vomit than diarrhea, short 1-6 hr incubation
What bacteria cause food poisoning?S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, clostridium perfingens, E. coli
Cholerawater poisoning caused by vibrio cholerae, poor sanitation, motile comma shaped cell toxin interferes with intestinal fluid reabsorption, can live in body for a long period of time
Symptoms of choleraintestinal contents lost rapidly, late hours of diarrhea are intestinal secretions, IL/hr
Treatment of choleramost recover with dehydration treatment, vaccine is only effective for 6 months
Noroviruswinter vomit bug, extremely hearty virus, 1-3days vomit and diarrhea, shed virus in stool around two weeks after