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Human Infectious Disease Exam 3 Part one

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achapss's version from 2017-04-07 17:02

Section

Question Answer
What are the three layers of the skin in order from outside to in?Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous/hypodermis
Epidermis layers of tightly packed cells, avascular, 20-30 layers at top are dead skin cells
Dermissecond layer of skin under epidermis, layers of pigmented living cells
Subcutaneous deepest layer of skin stem cell population, hair follicle and sebaceous glands, vascular
Sebumlow pH acidic, from sebaceous glands, high lipid content and lipid breakdown procedures that not many bacteria can tolerate
Sweatlow pH acidic, high salt content contains lysozyme
Vesiclelesion of the skin that is raised bump filled with clear fluid
Pustulelesion of the skin that is a raised bump filled with pus
Maculelesion of the skin that is flat and discolored, not raised, and is usually red to brown resembling freckles
Papuleraised and solid not fluid filled like a mole
Vesicular Rashraised fluid filled vesicles
Papular Rashraised solid lesions
Maculopapular Rashsmall raised bumps filled with fluid sometimes semi flat
Flaking Rashlosing epidermis rapidly and usually comes with inflammation
Varicella Zosterchicken pox and shingles, vaccination at a young age is the only treatment, remains latent in peripheral nerves becoming shingles later in life if the immune system is compromised
Variola Viruscauses small pox, has been eradicated, high fever, legions on the mouth and then all over the body that crust and scar, can be lethal
Herpes Simplex 1oral herpes and cold sores, can be chronic recurring as cold sores or acute with fever and itchy vesicular lesions
RubivirusRubella infection, fever, swollen nodes, malaise, MMR vaccine, especially dangerous during pregnancy
Human Papilloma VirusHPV warts transmitted sexually usually asymptomatic in men, gardasil treatment could lead to cervical cancer
Proprionbacterium acnesskin bacterial infection causes acne when bacteria climbs into hair follicles to feed on sebum lipids
Streptococcus Pyrogenescan cause impetigo, acid that disgusts the skin necrotizing fasciitis flesh eating bacteria to access blood stream
P. Aeruginosainfections all over the body usually healthcare acquired, robust metabolism, if confined to the epidermis not dangerous but opportunistic common with implanted devices and immunocompromised patients
Clostridium Perfringesgangrene infection of spore forming anaerobic bacteria trying to get to deep tissues away from oxygen rapid tissue destruction fatal if it reaches the blood
Bacillus Anthracesendospore forming soil dwelling passed by soil wound contact, local usually painless lesion on the skin but secretes toxins that can be fatal if they get to the blood
What is measles?re-emerging disease in the US due to vaccination failure, infection 90% of the susceptible population
How is measles transmitted?through droplets from coughs and sneezes, can remain live on a surface for up to two hours
Andrew Wakefieldprompted the anti vaccination campaign and invalid study on it with 12 children with autism, lost license
Who is susceptible to measles?those who have not been vaccinated, elderly, children under 1 year old who can not yet receive vaccination
What is MRSA?antibiotic resistant strain of staph aureus that can withstand high salt, pH, air, temperature conditions
Folliculitisstaph in hair follicle
Impetigostaph or strep in epidermis
Cellulitisstaph in dermis
Why is S. aureus/MRSA so powerful?specific enzyme virulence factor that can disrupt blood clotting and move and loosen tissues to allow deeper penetration and entry
How is staph infection spread?it begins on the skin and gains entry and is primarily spread by skin to skin contact, crowded areas, poor hygiene practice, increased access to vulnerable parts of the body as cuts
What is the danger of staph?it can penetrate deep tissues and bones causing sepsis, endocarditis, TSS, meningitis, and pneumonia
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section

Question Answer
meningitisinflammation of the meninges caused by foreign invaders to the nervous system, when meninges are inflamed they thicken and press on the skull and then the brain killing off neurons and causing permanent brain damage
How do pathogens get into the nervous system?through the blood, skull and facial bone damage, meninges damage usually from an injection
Nesseria meningitides/meningococcuscollege campus common meningitis, vaccine available for early life, can be treated with antibiotics early on, releases a toxin that damages blood vessels and gets to the brain
Streptococcus Pneumoniaecauses meningitis and pneumonia or just pneumonia through respiratory mucosa, can get a vaccination as a child
Haemophilis Influenzae or HiBsevere meningitis diagnosed since the 1980s with vaccination, often fatal and common in children under five, misdiagnosed today and increasing
Listeria Monocytogenesmild or asymptomatic food poisoning bacteria live intracellularly, present in most meats, detrimental to pregnant women can be passed through placenta
Polioenterovirus of the nervous system transmitted usually by tainted water and the fecal to oral route, vaccine in childhood, eradicated in the western hemisphere, mild symptoms to paralysis
Encephalitisfatal inflammation of the brain causing seizure, paralysis, behavior change etc. can be west nile or eastern equine, transmitted by vector usually mosquito
Eastern Equine Encephalitisrare occurring but 70% fatal, infection can be with our without disease and confers life long immunity
West Nile Encephalitisonly 20% infection confer symptoms and only 1% serious, headache fever, fatigue, weakness for weeks
Rabieszombie virus, zoonotic in blood and salvia transmitted by bite, changes host behavior to want to bite, fatal encephalitis
Tetanusspore formers in soil and contact with open wounds, toxin release to cause spastic paralysis, vaccine and booster treatment
Spastic Paralysismuscles contracted
Flaccid Paralysismuscles loose and can not contract
Botulismspores in soil usually in canned foods, releases toxin that causes flaccid paralysis, no vaccine, most common in babies from honey and vegetables
Prionsinfectious non DNA or RNA proteins that recruit other proteins to refold and reshape changing their function, no test or treatment can only be diagnosed after death
What are the two kinds of PRP?cellular PRP - normal made by human brain and non infectious, Prion PRP - infectious recruits CPRP to become more PPRP often acquired from tainted meat
How is PPRP infectious?it refolds CPRP to PRPR prompting the cell to realize the lack of the regular protein and make more constantly converting, the PPRP builds up and prevents signals from being passed through the synapses in the neuromuscular junction
Spongiform Encephalitismad cow disease prion based
Scabiessheep prion disease
Kuruancient papua new guinea practice of eating a piece of their loved one when they pass away to gain wisdom, eradicated and deemed cannibalism caused CJ disease
Creutzfeldt Jakob Diseaseoriginated in papua new guinea, comes in variant and spontaneous forms, prion disease that can take between 1-5 years to present itself after diagnosis acquired through ingesting animal or human tissue, transplants and medical supplies
Spontaneous CJ Diseasecellular PRP converts to prion PRP for unknown reasons
Variant CJ Diseaseingested and acquired PPRP
Guillian Barre Syndromethought to have connection with Zika in adults, inflammation where immune system attacks the nervous system leading to temporary paralysis increased risk for mental illness seen after dengue fever no current treatment or vaccine
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