Human Infectious Disease Exam 2 Part Two

achapss's version from 2017-03-24 12:37


Question Answer
Florence Nightingalefirst to propose miasma isn't real, sanitation and nutrition in sickness in soldiers during WWII
John Snowfather of epidemiology discovered existence of pathogenic cause and mode of transmission and initial site of cholera outbreak in london in the 1850s
Pasteurdevelopment of germ theory that pathogenic particles cause disease not miasma
Listeradvocate for sanitation in hospitals and during surgeries
Kochdeveloped postulates for determining if a microbe caused disease
What are Koch's postulates?1. does every case have the same microbe? 2. isolate the microbe and grow in lab to study 3. infect animal with growth does it get sick? 4. if you re isolate the microbe is it still the same thing
What is the issue with Koch's postulates?viruses are obligate pathogens and can't go through this process so it is not always accurate
When and what was the last big one and what was unique about it?2003 SARS CoV, first time identifying causative agent with genetics
Prevalencetotal cases in a population/total people in population times 100
Incidencenumber of new cases in a given time period/number of susceptible people times 100
Mortality Ratenumber of deaths in a population due to a single disease
Morbidity Ratenumber of people afflicted with infectious disease
Endemic Spreadcan only exist in communities of a certain size but usually always present not necessarily pathogen related
Critical Community sizesize of population necessary for existence of endemic infection, if total number of infected drops below this size its is usually because there are not enough vulnerable people, usually common with those that confer life long immunity
Epidemicmore than expected and would typically see of a spread of disease not necessarily massive and not always a pathogenic cause
Sporadicoccasional cases at regular intervals as tetanus
Pandemicepidemics in multiple countries at once
Point Sourceepidemic infection where there is a single source for all cases that all victims are exposed to and exposure only happens all at once, we see a spike and then a decline in cases
Common Sourcesingle source of infection over a long period of time like typhoid mary
Propagated Infectioncommunicable person to person spread through a population
Mass Action Principlethe spread of an infection depends on how vulnerable individuals come in contact with contagious individuals dictating the speed of spread


Question Answer
Where are lymph nodes located?neck, arm pits, groin
Neutrophilsmulti lobed granulocytes most common immune cells in body, engulf bacteria fighting bacterial infection and mediate inflammation, when they die off they build up and form pus
Eosinophilsbilobed granulocytes, fight unicellular parasitic infection, facilitate allergy responses, one or the other depending on necessity of the environment
Macrophagesmature monocytes the live in ALL body tissues, engulf bacteria, do clean sweeps of the blood, present antigens to T cells, and drive inflammation
Basophilsfight parasitic infection and mediate allergy response
Natural Killer Cellsattack cancerous and virus infected cells and kill them off
Dendritic Cellssimilar to macrophages preform phagocytosis
Mast Cellsreside in tissues and aide in inflammatory response and allergic reactions
Lymphocytesreside to recognizable pathogens residing in lymph nodes and blood
First Line of DefenseBarrier Immunity
Second Line of DefenseInnate Immunity, always the same reaction utilizing specific tools including antimicrobial proteins, fever, inflammation, and phagocytosis
Third Line of DefenseAdaptive Immunity, pathogen specific and ALWAYS different called into action by phagocytic cells, cytokines and anything in lymph nodes
What does the innate immunity "tool set" include?phagocytosis, inflammation, fever, antimicrobial proteins
What cells can perform phagocytosis in innate immunity?neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells
Phagosomevesicle used to rid and digest pathogen in innate immunity
cytokineschemical messengers
what are the symptoms of inflammation?redness, heat, tenderness, swelling
What cells are involved in inflammation?neutrophils
What causes the red color in inflammation?increase in blood flow and dilation of vessels
What causes swelling in inflammation?leaky endothelial cells of vessel wall as immune cells leave and fill the tissues with plasma
What causes heat in inflammation?increase in blood flow and plasma to the tissues
Diapedesisthe process of immune cells leaving the blood vessel in inflammation
Chronic inflammationlong term inflammation when there is an issue with the regulatory population
What is the function of pain in inflammation?to put an aversion to contact with the area, limiting the availability to infection while the barrier is down
Pyrogensany fever causing agents, cytokines and pathogenic microbes
How are fevers helpful?impede nutrition of bacteria (need iron to survive), inhibit multiplication of viruses and fungi, increase production of immune cells and responses
Interferonsthree forms of antimicrobial proteins that interfere with viral replication
Complementseries of blood proteins that recognize cell surface of pathogens and poke holes to make them explode like penicillin does
Small Peptidesantimicrobial proteins that insert into bacterial cell membranes and poke holes exploding them


Question Answer
What cell types are involved in the third line of defense?B cells, plasma cells, Helper and Cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cellsrecognizes MHC-I (all cells beside phagocytic cells) and destroys virus infected and tumor cells, can bind antigens on any pathogenic cell in the body
Helper T cellsread MHC-II antigens (phagocytic cells: dendritic and macrophages) and facilitate cytokines when necessary that activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells
MHC-IIphagocytic cells dendritic and macrophages
MHC-Iall cells beside phagocytic cells
Where are B cells produced?bone marrow
Where are T cells produced?precursors in bone marrow and then to the thymus for maturation testing and educating
What must happen for T cells to be considered mature and not eliminated?T cells must be able to decipher between non self and self cells recognizing and reacting to MHC class cells
What happens when dysfunctional T cells are not eliminated?autoimmune disease
B cellsproduce soluble antibodies
Regulatory Populationsgroups of cells responsible for resolving immune reactions and returning the body to normal
What are the primary functions of antibodies?to coat and disable pathogens preventing them from forming biofilms and docking, secrete toxins to kill them, crosslink and disable pathogens, strengthen immune response coupled with regulatory proteins
IgGmost common antibodies in blood made by plasma cells
IgAfound all over the body primary role in mucus and breastmilk
IgMcome in a complex of five and are the first antibody made with immune response by B cells, found in blood
IgEfound in blood respond to allergies, parasitic infection, and asthma
IgDfound on the surface of B cells not secreted
Passive Immunityhigh levels of antibody against a specific pathogen that are passed from an immune to a non immune person via blood
how long does it take for adaptive immunity to transform to memory?10 days to 2 weeks
Toleranceability to accept non self without a reaction
hygiene hypothesisimmune system evolves to form tolerance through understanding interactions with some non self elements can be harmless if exposed early on, removing this early exposure and overly sterile environments weakens the immune system
What is HIV?a target toward the helper T cells
CD4helper T cell count
Edward Jennerdeveloped first vaccine from theory that people were getting small pox from cows
Vaccavaccine made from non-virulent to humans cow pox first vaccine
What does cortisol do to the immune system?reduces cytokine production, apoptosis of lymphocytes, compromises innate and acquired immune response