Human Infectious Disease Exam 1

achapss's version from 2017-02-13 19:01

Section 1

Question Answer
Reservoir Hostlong term host of a pathogen of a disease, not affected to a pathogen this is where it hides ex: hendra bat
Amplifier Hostthe host that receives a large amount of molecules of the pathogen and can actively pass it on, it is a temporary home, the host is harmed by the pathogen
Re-emergingincidence is increasing due to host behavior or biology
Emergingincidence is increasing after first introduction to a new host species
Spillover moment a pathogen moves from one host species to another
Zoonosisdisease transmitted from humans to animals
Spillovers the creation of a zoonosis most common in areas with the most diverse amount of animal species and possible human contact allowing for mixing
What two discoveries have driven our combat of disease?antibiotics and vaccines
Integumentary Systemthe skin, non sterile, home to many microbes, damage results in infection
Skeletal Systemsterile, forms blood cells and stores minerals
Muscular Systemsterile, maintains posture
Nervous Systemnormally sterile keeps microbes out responds to internal and external changes with muscles and glands
Endocrine Systemglands secrete hormones and utilizes nutrient use
Cardiovascular Systemtransportation system, easily allows pathogens and spreads
Lymphatic and Immune Systemhouses RBC, attacks foreign bodies, picks up tissues, all cells respond to infection
Inoculationcontainer with sterile medium can be in streak plate or broth add bacterial sample and allow to grow
Incubationwith proper growth conditions after inoculation dependent on gas, temp, humidity
Isolationafter incubation, can take from colonies or turbid liquid cultures
Pure cultureonly a single strain of bacteria grown up from a single colony
Inspectionafter isolation and reculturing, macroscopic observation of color, growth, texture etc
Identificationnaming and ID strains of bacteria at the end of everything, includes DNA analysis and specialized tests
Defined Mediachemical composition identifier, we know all of the ingredients in the media
Complex Mediachemical composition identifier, we can't completely state all of the ingredients in media ex: sheep brain
What are the functions of liquid, semi solid, and solid/rev to liquid media?liquid is for dispersed growth and turbidity, semi solid determines motility, solid/rev determines enzyme activity
Selective Mediafunctional media of which one or more agents inhibit some microbes some will grow others will not
Differential Mediafunctional media of which multiple microbes will be able to grow color differentiation is used
Reducing Mediafunctional media that limits oxygen to determine strain
Carbohydrate Fermentation Mediafunctional media that has sugars that bacteria may use

Section 2

Question Answer
Condensation Reactiondehydration synthesis monomers come together to form a polymer and water is the product
Hydration Reactionwater is added to a compound to break it down from polymers to monomers
What are the monomer and polymers of carbohydrates?mono = glucose, fructose, galactose poly= cellulose glycogen
What are the monomer and polymers of lipids?mono = fatty acid poly = triglyceride
What are the monomer and polymers of protein?mono= amino acids poly= polypeptides
Primary Structureamino acid sequence
Secondary Structure3D alpha and beta pleated sheets and helices and outgroup interaction
Tertiary Structurefolding and interaction of multiple sheets and helices
Quaternary Structureinteraction of different proteins and their R groups
What are the monomer and polymers of nucleic acids ?mono= nucleotide poly= nucleic acid
Hypertonicmore concentration of solute on outside of the cell, water wants to come out so it shrivels
Hypotonicmore concentration inside the cell, water whats to come in, expand and possibly lyse
Isotonicconcentration are equal on all sides
Vesiclesstore chemicals, protein, etc
Lysosomesgarbage disposal membrane bound acid container that digests unwanted materials
Peptidoglycanpart of bacterial cell wall that is made of repeating sugar units with proteins throughout, prevents the uptake of too much water from the external environment
Anabolicbuild, makes energy
Catabolicbreak takes energy
Substratechemical that the enzyme changes to activate either catabolic or anabolic
Competitive Inhibitionthe inhibitor binds to the active site on the enzyme temporarily inhibits the binding of the substrate
Noncompetitive Inhibitionbinding of an inhibitor in close proximity to the active site in order to change the shape of the enzyme and make it so that the subtract can no longer interact with the enzyme
What is the first step in cellular respiration for all cellsand what is the product?glycolysis, 2 3 carbon pyruvate molecules
Aerobic Respirationoxygen needed, release energy and convert ADP to ATP, then Kreb Cycle, Co2 as a result, ends with 36-38 ATP per 1 glucose molecule
Fermentationnot much ATP gained after glycolysis, 2 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule, organism relies a lot on its environment for a lot more glucose, can switch between respiration and fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid and ethyl alcohol
Anaerobic Respirationenters at krebs cycle, doesn't need oxygen from outside world but this makes the ATP yield limited to 2-36 per 1 Glucose