Human Infectious Disease Exam 1 Part two

achapss's version from 2017-02-16 16:32


Question Answer
How are viruses composed?small simple genome that can be kept in either DNA or RNA taking up the majority of the inside of the structure
ReplicationStep One in DNA synthesis, makes new DNA template unzips two strands
TranscriptionStep two in DNA synthesis, DNA is copied to mRNA, directions for protein synthesis, site for possible mutations
TranslationStep three in DNA Synthesis, mRNA to cytoplasm to the ribosomes for further instruction
Virulence Plasmidsconnect bacteria to pathogen strains
Fertility Plasmidsallow sharing of DNA by proximity
Plasmid Conjugationbacteria with fertility plasmids can replicate and share their plasmid with others
Plasmid Transformationliving bacteria that are competent are able to take up DNA from their environment
Plasmid Transductionwhen a virus carries bacterial DNA from one bacterial host to another
Plasmid Transposonssome DNA have the ability to excise and reinsert DNA within themselves jumping from one plasmid to the next

Section 2

Question Answer
Biofilmsgroups of bacteria together living on a surface that exude a sticky substance to adhere to each other, change based on location and environment and can be pathogenic
Flagellasingle whip like appendage in charge of motility, rapid direction
Axial Filaments or Periplasmic Flagellatwo or more long coiled threads in charge of motility
Pillilong rigid hollow appendages that allow for the sharing of plasmids in gram negative bacteria and connectivity
Nanotubesin charge of cell connectivity, resemble tubes
Fimbriaemany appendages all over the cell, adhere to other bacteria and aide in the establishment of the biofilm allow to infect the gut
Glycocalyxsurface coating of bacteria made of loosely arranged polysaccharide slime
Capsulefound in pathogenic bacteria made of tightly arranged polysaccharide protection on outside, usually gives the pathogenic quality
Gram Postivethick peptidoglycan layer, violet stain
Gram Negativethin peptidoglycan layer with a second phospholipid bi layer more flexible, stains pink
Bacterial Ribosomesconsist of two subunits much different density
Inclusions or Granulesmembrane bound bacterial sacs that are on the inside of cells that help to cope with the environment store food, pack gas, magnetic properties
Endosporesability of a cell to preserve itself in harsh conditions, seed like spore forms and the cell encounters a vegetative cell state living phase and then the endospore stage where the cell dies off through dehydration
Conjugationhorizontal gene share via plasmids or chromosomes
Autotrophsutilize CO2 from air, maintain self, usually photosynthesis
Heterotrophseat carbon sources
What are the two kinds of heterotrophs?Saprobes feed on decaying organisms, parasites derive nutrients from living organisms or agar
Chemotrophseat chemical carbon
Obligate Parasitesneed another cell to live can not use agar
Aerobeskin and lung dwelling can use oxygen or air
Obligate Aerobecan only use oxygen
Microaerophileslive in the blood and GI tract, only use a small amount of oxygen and will die with high levels
Facultative Anaerobeslive in the intestinal tract, can switch between using and not using oxygen
Anaerobesoral and intestinal tract dwelling, can not use oxygen and some die in the presence of it, protected by biofilms

Section 3

Question Answer
Obligate Parasiteneeds a viable host for survival
Explain parasite vs pathogena parasite does not always cause harm to its host but a pathogen will cause disease and harm
What are the three vital structures of a viruscapsid, envelope, genome
What is the role of the envelope that some viruses havethe envelope is made of phospholipids with protein spikes that latch on and modify the host membrane for the virus to enter and multiply
How does a virus operatedepending on positive or negative sense, a virus must dock onto the surface of a host cell and successfully enter, replicate, and get out
Retrovirussingle strand positive sense virus that starts as RNA that matches the mRNA of the host and converts to DNA to trick host into reproducing and then back to RNA utilizing a special enzyme
Positive Sense Virusgoes directly to translation has the matching sequence as the host's mRNA
Negative Sense Virushas the opposite sequence to messenger RNA of the host and needs to be transcribed before translated to protein
Dockinginteraction of protein spikes on virus capsid envelope with the receptors on the host cells surface
Host Rangeconfiguration of spikes determine specificity and ability of the virus to infect specific hosts of which is usually a narrow subset
What happens when a virus enters the cellthe envelope and capsid are shed and or engulfed or digested by the host

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