Human Development Test 2

airbud123's version from 2016-11-04 02:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Initiative versus guiltYoung children have a new sense of purposefulness. Eager to tackle tasks and join in activities
Self-conceptThe set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who or she is
Self-esteemThe judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
Prosocial or altruistic, behavior Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
SympathyFeelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight

Section 2

Question Answer
Non-social activityUnoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel playChild plays near other children with similar materials, but does not influence behavior
Associative playChildren engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative playMore advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme

Section 3

Question Answer
InductionAn adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
TimeoutRemoving children from the immediate setting, send to room
Moral imperativesProtect people's rights and welfare
Social conventionsCustoms determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and politeness
Matters of personal choiceFriends, hairstyle, and leisure activities

Section 4

Question Answer
Proactive aggressionChildren act to fulfill a need or desire
Reactive aggressionAngry, defensive response to provocation
Physical aggressionHarms through physical injury
Verbal aggressionHarms through threat of physical aggression, name calling
Relational aggressionDamages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation

Section 5

Question Answer
Gender typingAssociation of objects or activities with gender
Gender identityImage of oneself as relatively masculine
AndrogynyScoring high on both masculine and feminine characteristics
Gender constancyFull understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender
Gender schemeInfo-processing approach that combines social Learnign and cognitive development. It explains how environmental pressures and children work together

Section 6

Question Answer
Authoritative Low acceptance, high involvement, high coercive control, low autonomy granting
Psychological controlBehaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression?
Permissive child-rearingWarm and accepting but uninvolved. Engage in little control.
UninvolvedEmotionally detached and withdrawn. Few or no demands. Indifferent to the child's decision making and point of view

Section 7

Question Answer
ObesityGrater than 20% BMI, ratio of weight to body fat
Rough and tumble playFriendly chasing and play-fighting
Dominance hierarchyStable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises
Concrete operational stageExtends from 7-11 years. Compared with early child-hood, thought is far more flexible and logical
ReversibilityCapacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point

Section 8

Question Answer
SerrationAbility to order items along a quantitive dimension, such as length or weight
Transitive inferenceConcrete operational child can also seriate mentally
Cognitive mapsMental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as neighbor hood or school
Cognitive self-regulationProcess of continually monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts

Section 9

Question Answer
Whole languageChildren should be exposed to text in complete form
Phonics approachBelieving that children should first be coached
Theory of multiple intelligenceIntelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide array of valued activities
Stereotype threatFear if being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype