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Human Body Systems and Homeostasis

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celine's version from 2018-02-21 20:44

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The tendency to maintain a stable, relatively constant internal environment is called ---------------. homeostasis
The body maintains homeostasis for many factors in addition to ---------------. For instance, the concentration of various ions in your blood must be kept steady, along with -------------- and the concentration of ---------------. If these values get too high or low, you can end up getting very sick. temperature, pH, glucose
Maintenance of homeostasis usually involves ---------------. These loops act to oppose the ---------------, or cue, that triggers them. For example, if your body temperature is too high, a negative feedback loop will act to bring it back down towards the ---------------, or target value, of 98.6°F or 37.0°C.negative feedback loops, stimulus, set point
How does homeostasis work? First, high temperature will be detected by --------------- primarily nerve cells with endings in your skin and brain and relayed to a temperature regulatory ------------- in your brain. The control center will process the information and activate --------------- such as the sweat glands, whose job is to oppose the stimulus by bringing body temperature down.sensors, control center, effectors
If you get either too hot or too cold, --------------- in the periphery and the brain tell the temperature regulation center of your brain in a region called the --------------- that your temperature has strayed from its set point. sensors, hypothalamus
If you’ve been exercising hard, your body temperature can rise above its ----------, and you’ll need to activate mechanisms that cool you down. ------------ to your skin increases to speed up heat loss into your surroundings, and you might also start ------------ so the evaporation of sweat from your skin can help you cool off. ------------ can also increase heat loss. On the other hand, if you’re sitting in a cold room, the temperature center in the brain will need to trigger responses that help warm you up. The blood flow to your skin ------------, and you might start shivering so that your muscles generate more heat. You may also get goose bumps so that the hair on your body stands on end and traps a layer of air near your skin and increase the release of hormones that act to increase heat production.set point, blood flow, sweating, heavy breathing, decreases
Homeostasis depends on ---------------. So, anything that interferes with the feedback mechanisms can—and usually will!—disrupt ---------------. In the case of the human body, this may lead to ---------------. negative feedback loops, homeostasis, disease
-------------, is a disease caused by a broken feedback loop involving the hormone ---------------. The broken feedback loop makes it difficult for the body to bring high --------------- down to a healthy level.Diabetes, insulin, blood sugar
In a healthy person, blood sugar levels are controlled by two hormones: ------------- and -------------.insulin, glucagon
------------- decreases the concentration of glucose in the blood. After you eat a meal, your blood glucose levels rise, triggering the secretion of insulin from ------------- in the pancreas. Insulin acts as a signal that triggers cells of the body, such as fat and muscle cells, to take up glucose for use as fuel. Insulin also causes glucose to be converted into -------------, a storage molecule in the liver. Both processes pull sugar out of the blood, bringing blood sugar levels down, reducing insulin secretion, and returning the whole system to -------------.Insulin, β cells, glycogen, homeostasis
------------- increases the concentration of glucose in the blood. If you haven’t eaten for a while, your blood glucose levels fall, triggering the release of glucagon from another group of pancreatic cells, the -------------. Glucagon acts on the -------------, causing glycogen to be broken down into ------------- and released into the bloodstream, causing blood sugar levels to go back up. This reduces glucagon secretion and brings the system back to homeostasis. Glucagon, α cells, liver, glucose
Diabetes happens when a person's pancreas can't make enough -------------, or when cells in the body ------------- to insulin, or both. Under these conditions, body cells don't take up ------------- readily, so blood sugar levels remain ------------- for a long period of time after a meal. This is for two reasons: 1. Muscle and fat cells don't get enough -------------, or fuel. This can make people feel tired and even cause muscle and fat tissues to waste away. 2. High blood sugar causes symptoms like increased urination, thirst, and even dehydration. Over time, it can lead to more serious complications.insulin, stop responding, glucose, high, glucose
Homeostatic circuits usually involve -------------. Some biological systems, however, use positive feedback loops. Unlike negative feedback loops, positive feedback loops ------------- the starting signal. Positive feedback loops are usually found in processes that need to be pushed to -------------, not when the status quo needs to be maintained.negative feedback loops, amplify, completion
A ------------- feedback loop comes into play during childbirth. In childbirth, the baby's head presses on the cervix, the bottom of the uterus, through which the baby must emerge and activates neurons to the brain. The neurons send a signal that leads to release of the hormone ------------- from the pituitary gland. Oxytocin increases uterine contractions, and thus pressure on the cervix. This causes the release of even more oxytocin and produces even stronger contractions. This positive feedback loop continues until the baby is born.positive, oxytocin,
--------------- is the tendency to resist change in order to maintain a stable, relatively constant internal environment. homeostasis
Homeostasis typically involves --------------- that counteract changes of various properties from their target values, known as --------------.negative feedback loops, set points
In contrast to negative feedback loops, --------------- amplify their initiating stimuli, in other words, they move the system away from its starting state.positive feedback loops
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Humans—and other complex multicellular organisms have --------------- that work together, carrying out processes that keep us alive.systems of organs
The body has levels of organization that build on each other. --------------- make up tissues, --------------- make up organs, and organs make up ---------------.Cells, organs, organ systems
The function of an organ system depends on the integrated activity of its ---------------. For instance, digestive system organs cooperate to process food.organs
The survival of the organism depends on the integrated activity of all the organ systems, often coordinated by the --------------- and --------------- systems. endocrine, nervous
--------------- are considered the fundamental units of life.Cells
The cells in complex multicellular organisms like people are organized into ---------------, groups of similar cells that work together on a specific task.tissues
--------------- are structures made up of two or more tissues organized to carry out a particular function, and groups of organs with related functions make up the different --------------.organs, organ systems
Humans and other large multicellular animals are made up of four basic tissue types: ---------------, ---------------, ---------------, and ---------------. epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue
-------------- consists of tightly packed sheets of cells that cover surfaces including the outside of the body and line body cavities.Epithelial tissue (skin surface, lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs)
Epithelial cells are --------------, meaning that they have a top and a bottom side. The --------------, top, side of an epithelial cell faces the inside of a cavity or the outside of a structure and is usually exposed to fluid or air. The --------------, bottom, side faces the underlying cells. polarized, apical, basal
-------------- consists of cells suspended in an extracellular matrix. In most cases, the matrix is made up of protein fibers like ------------- and ------------- in a solid, liquid, or jellylike ground substance. Connective tissue supports and, as the name suggests, connects other -------------.Connective tissue, collagen and fibrin, tissues
-------------- connective tissue, show below, is the most common type of connective tissue and is found throughout your body, and it supports organs and blood vessels and links epithelial tissues to the muscles underneath. -------------- or --------------, connective tissue is found in tendons and ligaments, which connect muscles to bones and bones to each other, respectively.loose, dense or fibrous
Specialized forms of connective tissue include -------------- tissue, body fat, bone, cartilage, and blood, in which the extracellular matrix is a liquid called --------------.adipose, plasma
-------------- tissue is essential for keeping the body upright, allowing it to move, and even pumping blood and pushing food through the digestive tract.Muscle
Muscle cells, often called --------------, contain the proteins -------------- and --------------, which allow them to contract.muscle fibers, actin, myosin
There are three main types of muscle: --------------, --------------, and --------------.skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
-------------- muscle, which is also called striated or striped muscle, is what we refer to as muscle in everyday life. Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by --------------, and it allows you to consciously control your movements. For instance, the quads in your legs or biceps in your arms are skeletal muscle.Skeletal, tendons
-------------- muscle is found only in the walls of the heart. Like skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is --------------. But it's not under voluntary control, so thankfully! you don’t need to think about making your heart beat. The individual fibers are connected by structures called -------------, which allow them to contract in sync.Cardiac, striated, or striped, intercalated disks
-------------- muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, as well as in the walls of the digestive tract, the uterus, the urinary bladder, and various other internal structures. Smooth muscle is -------------- striped or striated, and it's -------------, not under conscious control. That means you don't have to think about moving food through your digestive tract!Smooth, not, involuntary
-------------- tissue is involved in sensing stimuli—external or internal cues—and processing and transmitting information.Nervous
Nervous tissue consists of two main types of cells: -------------- or --------------, and --------------.neurons or nerve cells, and glia
The ------------- are the basic functional unit of the nervous system. They generate electrical signals called conducted nerve impulses or ------------- that allow the neurons to convey information very rapidly across long distances. The ------------- mainly act to support neuronal function.neurons, action potentials, gila
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Question Answer
Transports oxygen, nutrients, and other substances to the cells and transports wastes, carbon dioxide, and other substances away from the cells; it can also help stabilize body temperature and pHCardiovascular system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Cardiovascular systemHeart, blood, and blood vessels
Defends against infection and disease and transfers lymph between tissues and the blood streamLymphatic system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Lymphatic systemLymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels
Processes foods and absorbs nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and waterDigestive system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Digestive systemMouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, exocrine pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine
Provides communication within the body via hormones and directs long-term change in other organ systems to maintain homeostasisEndocrine system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Endocrine systemPituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroids, endocrine pancreas, adrenals, testes, and ovaries
Provides protection from injury and fluid loss and provides physical defense against infection by microorganisms; involved in temperature controlIntegumentary system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Integumentary systemSkin, hair, and nails
Provides movement, support, and heat productionMuscular system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Muscular systemSkeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles
Collects, transfers, and processes information and directs short-term change in other organ systemsNervous system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Nervous systemBrain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory organs—eyes, ears, tongue, skin, and nose
Produces gametes—sex cells—and sex hormones; ultimately produces offspringReproductive system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Reproductive systemFallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, ovaries, mammary glands (female), testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis (male)
Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occurRespiratory system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Respiratory systemMouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm
Supports and protects soft tissues of the body; provides movement at joints; produces blood cells; and stores mineralsSkeletal system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Skeletal systemBones, cartilage, joints, tendons, and ligaments
Removes excess water, salts, and waste products from the blood and body and controls pHUrinary system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Urinary systemKidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Defends against microbial pathogens—disease-causing agents—and other diseasesImmune system
Organs, tissues, & structures involved in Immune systemLeukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen
Homeostasis involves negative feedback loops and an example of negative feedback loop isbody temperature regulation
In contrast to negative feedback loops, positive feedback loops amplify their initiating stimuli, in other words, they move the system away from its starting state. The ---------------------- is an example of a positive feedback loop, as ethylene continues to trigger ripening in neighboring fruit.ripening of fruit
Although the term "negative" is included, Negative feedback is not bad for the body. "Negative" simply means that the feedback loop works to counter the -----------------, not that the feedback loop is detrimental.stimulus
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