Human Anatomy and Physiology

trocket52's version from 2015-12-18 22:47

Section 1

Question Answer
TissuesGroup of cells performing a common function
HistologyStudy of tissues
Epithelial (1 of 4 types of tissues)Functions as a covering of either the inside or the outside of the body (e.g.: the skin or the lining of the respiratory tract)
The three basic categories of epithelialCuboidal (square cells), columnar (cells taller than they are wide) & squamous (diamond or fish-scale shaped). Cells in a single layer are simple & multiple layers are stratified. So skin is stratified squamous epithelium
Nervous (1 of 4 types of tissues)Carries out signal transmission
Muscle (1 of 4 type of tissues)Carries out movement
Connective (1 of 4 type of tissues)Has various functions. A variety of different types. Loose & dense connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, blood. General characteristics include connective tissue fibers (e.g.: collagen), a cell, & materials secreted by the cells such as ground substance or extracellular matrix that holds the cell together

Section 2

Question Answer
Skeletal systemFunctions are for protection (e.g.; rib cage), movement (along with muscles), mineral storage (calcium and phosphorus), & production of blood ( red & white blood cells in the bone marrow)
Osteoblasts (bone formation)They are the cells responsible for making the bone
Osteoclasts (bone formation)They break down the bone to be re-formed
Axial Skeleton (skeletal structure)Composes of the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage, which includes the ribs & sternum or breastbone
Appendicular Skeleton (skeletal structure)The appendages (arms & legs). Includes (legs) femur (largest bone), tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges & pelvic girdle. (Arms) humerus, radius, ulna, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, scapula, & clavicle

Section 3

Question Answer
Muscle FunctionMovement. Movement in different directions is typically achieved by the action of pairs of antagonistic or opposing muscles (e.g.: triceps & biceps). Muscles contract (shorten) or relax. The process of contraction requires calcium
Muscle StructureMuscles are made up of bundles of muscle fibers.
MyofibrilsBundles of muscle fibers
Actin & MyosinProteins that compose myofibrils and play a major role in the sliding filament model
Smooth muscleLines the blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, & lungs
Striated muscleSkeletal muscle (for movement) & cardiac muscle (pumps blood)

Section 4

Question Answer
Nervous systemTwo basic activities are carried out: 1. Sensory functions- Sending & processing sensory info. hearing seeing touch etc. 2. Controlling movement- Sending signals to muscles to make them move
NeuronBasic unit (cell) of the nervous system
AxonIn a neuron and performs signal conduction
Cell BodyPortion of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus
DendritesBranching pieces at the end which increase the area for connecting to other neurons or muscle
MyelinIn some neurons it wraps around axon to prevent signal loss
The SynapseThe place where signal transmission occurs. A junction between two neurons or between a neuron & a muscle (aka, neuromuscular junction)
NeurotransmittersChemicals which are stored in the synapse (in synaptic vesicles) & then released into the synaptic cleft (space between the cells) & diffuses across to send a signal to the next cell
AcetylcholineThe process in which a neurotransmitter binds to these receptors on the membrane of the receiving (postsynaptic) cell. Remaining neurotransmitter is either broken down enzymatically or reabsorbed
Botulism (disease involving synapse) These toxins inhibit the release of acetylcholine. Primary symptom is muscle weakness
Myasthenia gravis Antibodies block acetylcholine receptors. Primary symptom is muscle weakness
Threshold StimulusThe minimum stimulus required for activation.
Resting membrane potentialWhen the cell is -70 millivolts
Action potentialWhen the cell changes from its resting membrane potential to positively charged
Ionic ConditionsReverse from the normal condition of high internal levels of K+ & low internal levels of Na+ (maintained by active transport) w/ Na+ going in and K+ going out. This is how the neuron returns to its normal ionic state

Section 5

Question Answer
DivisionsNervous systems can be divided into the central nervous system & the peripheral nervous system
Central Nervous SystemConsists of brain & spinal cord
MeningesA covering of the central nervous system. Surrounds the brain & spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous SystemThese nerves run to & from the central nervous system. Two broad types of this are sensory & motor.
Autonomic Another way a nervous system can be divided. This is known as involuntary functions. Examples: control of heart beat, digestion, breathing. Usually involves smooth muscle & cardiac muscle
SomaticKnown as voluntary. You control this. Usually involves skeletal muscle
Sympathetic Subdivision of autonomic nervous system. Usually accelerates things (e.g.: heart rate)
ParasympatheticSubdivision of autonomic nervous system. Usually slows things down

Section 6

Question Answer
ReflexesWhen certain movements that involve sensory information are not processed by the brain. Speed is the reason for this because signals do not have to be sent up to & then return from the brain. Instead, the processing takes place in a region of the spinal cord.
Cerebrum (1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Its functions are processing of sensory information & memory
Cerebellum(1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Receives information & from muscles and sensory receptors, controls balance & coordinated movement.
Brain Stem(1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Controls many autonomic functions such as breathing & heart beat

Section 7

Question Answer
Receptors in the skinCutaneous receptors in the dermis just bellows the epidermis detect sensations such as pressure, heat, & cold
CorneaThe front surface of the eye.
Fluid-Filled Anterior ChamberBetween the cornea & iris
IrisThe amount of light passing through the pupil to the lens is controlled by this smooth muscle.
LensIt's flexible and is suspended behind the iris by ligaments
RetinaWhere light is detected by photoreceptors rods (light sensitivity) & cones (color vision). It's located on the posterior surface of the eye
Optic nerveWhen signal is sent to the brain

Section 8

Question Answer
Outer Ear(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Function is collecting sound & sending it to the eardrum through the auditory canal
Middle Ear(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Separated from the outer ear by the tympanic membrane (eardrum). Vibrations picked up by the tympanic membrane get passed through a series of small bones: "hammer anvil, & stirrup" (incus, malleus, & stapes).
Eustachian tube/auditory tubeHow the middle ear is connected to the pharynx(throat). Its function is to equalize pressure.
Otitis Media(A disease involving the middle ear). Bacteria from the pharynx travel up the Eustachian tube to the middle ear & trigger inflammation & a painful buildup of fluid pressing on the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Inner Ear(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Made up of the cochlea & 3 semicircular canals.
Cochlea(Apart of the inner ear). Processes sound & sends the information down the auditory nerve.
Semicircular Canals (Also worded as vestibular apparatus) functions as balance and is sometimes referred to as dynamic equilibrium.

Section 9

Question Answer
Circulatory SystemBlood in particular. Transports wastes, nutrients, & oxygen
Components of bloodFluid & Cells
Plasma The fluid portion of blood. Contains water, proteins, & electrolytes
Erythrocytes(Red blood cells). The most numerous cells in blood. After a lifespan of roughly 100 days, old RBCs are removed by macrophages mainly in the liver & spleen
HemoglobinCarries oxygen via this transport protein. They're produced in bone marrow and lack a nucleus
Leukocytes(White blood cells). Most function in the immune system to protect the body against disease. Some (thrombocytes/platelets) are involved in blood clotting
Blood CirculationHeart --> Artery --> Arteriole --> Capillary --> Venule --> Vein --> Back to heart
ArteriesThe largest blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart. They have smooth muscle & elastic tissue in their lining. Arterioles are narrower
CapillaryThe thinnest & most numerous blood vessels
VeinsBlood returns to the heart in venules & then this. The largest of which is the vena cava. These may contain valves. The pressure in these are much lower than that in artieries
Pulmonary CirculationTakes blood from the heart to the lungs & back
Right ventricle ---> Pulmonary arteryOxygen poor blood goes from the _______ to the ________. NOTE: Most ARTERIES contain oxygen-rich blood. This is the one exception
Pulmonary VeinOxygen rich blood returns from the lungs to the heart via the _______. NOTE: Most VEINS contain oxygen-poor blood. This is the one exception
Left Atrium ---> Left VentricleOxygen rich blood enters the _____ and then goes to the ________
Systemic CirculationTakes blood from the heart to the body & back
Right Atrium (in systemic circulation)Oxygen poor blood returns from the body to the _______
Left Ventricle (in systemic circulation)Pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body (via the Aorta- the largest vessel with the highest pressure)

Section 10

Question Answer
Respiratory SystemBringing in O2 & getting rid of CO2
Upper Respiratory Tract(1 of 2 broad divisions of resp. system) Consists of nasal cavity, sinuses, middle ear, oral cavity, pharynx (throat), & the larynx (aka, voice box)
Trachea (Apart of lower resp. tract). Also known as the wind pipe
Bronchi & BronchiolesWhen the trachea branches into 2 major branches. The ______ - Each bronchus leads into a lung. In the lungs the bronchi branch into smaller tubes called _________
AlveoliThe air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Gas exchange takes place here. They are wrapped in a large number of capillaries
Diaphragm A sheet of muscle that marks the boundary between the thoracic cavity & abdominal cavity.
Negative Pressure BreathingWhen the diaphragm drops down and creates a vacuum in the thoracic cavity which sucks in air.
Gas Exchange at the AlevoliAlveoli are fragile structures (only one cell thick). They are so thin because gas exchange takes play by DIFFUSION (NOT active transport). CO2 diffuses out of the bloodstream and O2 diffuses in
Pneumonia(Disease). Fluid accumulation in the alveoli interferes w/ gas exchange, leading to lack of oxygen (cyanosis), coughing, & breathing difficulty.
Tuberculosis(Disease). An inflammatory reaction to pockets of bacteria in the lung triggers damage.

Section 11

Question Answer
Endocrine SystemControls a wide range of bodily functions. Metabolism, growth, reproduction, kidney function, temperature...
HormonesChemical messengers used in the endocrine system
Steroidal(1 of 2 basic type of hormones). Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, and aldosterone produced mainly by the testes, ovaries, & adrenal cortex.
Non-Steroidal(1 of 2 basic type of hormones). Also peptide hormones (all the others)
Tropic HormonesHormones that effect endocrine glands
Endocrine Cells & GlandsProduce hormones which travel through the blood stream to the target organ(s) & have a specific effect on them.
HypothalmusLocated just above the brainstem. Produces various hormones which stimulate or inhibit the pituitary gland as well as regulating autonomic functions such as body temperature.
Pituitary GlandLocated below the hypothalamus. Produces Growth Hormone (HGH), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone), TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), Prolactin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) in the anterior lobe & oxytocin and ADH in the posterior lobe.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone & Luteinizing Hormone(apart of the pituitary gland in the anterior lobe) _____ & ______ control ovulation/ the menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men
Oxytocin(apart of the pituitary gland in the posterior lobe) Involved in childbirth
Vasopressin (ADH)(apart of the pituitary gland in the posterior lobe) Raises blood pressure and makes the kidneys conserve water
Pineal GlandProduces melatonin - influences the biological clock or circadian rhythm
ThyroidProduces T3 and thyroxin (T4)
Iodine(In the case of thyroid) Synthesizes T3 and thyroxin (T4)
Parathyroid (parathyroid hormone)Regulates Ca and phosphate levels in the body
Adrenal GlandsLocated at the top of the kidneys.
Cortisol(apart of the adrenal glands) Raises blood pressure & reduces immune function
Aldosterone(apart of the adrenal glands) Regulates kidney function and Na/K balance in the blood
Epinephrine (aka Adrenaline) & Norepinephrine(apart of the adrenal glands) Fight or flight response to stress and acetylcholine
PancreasProduces insulin (triggers absorption of glucose from the blood, reducing glucose levels) and glucagon (raises glucose in the blood stream) for glucose metabolism
Estrogen(Apart of the ovaries) Regulates the menstrual cycle and reproductive system
Progesterone(Apart of the ovaries) Plays a role in the menstrual cycle and a key role in pregnancy
Testosterone(Apart of the testes) Promotes tissue growth and regulates the reproductive system