Functions as a covering of either the inside or the outside of the body (e.g.: the skin or the lining of the respiratory tract)
The three basic categories of epithelial
Cuboidal (square cells), columnar (cells taller than they are wide) & squamous (diamond or fish-scale shaped). Cells in a single layer are simple & multiple layers are stratified. So skin is stratified squamous epithelium
Nervous (1 of 4 types of tissues)
Carries out signal transmission
Muscle (1 of 4 type of tissues)
Carries out movement
Connective (1 of 4 type of tissues)
Has various functions. A variety of different types. Loose & dense connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, blood. General characteristics include connective tissue fibers (e.g.: collagen), a cell, & materials secreted by the cells such as ground substance or extracellular matrix that holds the cell together
Movement. Movement in different directions is typically achieved by the action of pairs of antagonistic or opposing muscles (e.g.: triceps & biceps). Muscles contract (shorten) or relax. The process of contraction requires calcium
Muscles are made up of bundles of muscle fibers.
Bundles of muscle fibers
Actin & Myosin
Proteins that compose myofibrils and play a major role in the sliding filament model
Lines the blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, & lungs
Two basic activities are carried out: 1. Sensory functions- Sending & processing sensory info. hearing seeing touch etc. 2. Controlling movement- Sending signals to muscles to make them move
Basic unit (cell) of the nervous system
In a neuron and performs signal conduction
Portion of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Branching pieces at the end which increase the area for connecting to other neurons or muscle
In some neurons it wraps around axon to prevent signal loss
The place where signal transmission occurs. A junction between two neurons or between a neuron & a muscle (aka, neuromuscular junction)
Chemicals which are stored in the synapse (in synaptic vesicles) & then released into the synaptic cleft (space between the cells) & diffuses across to send a signal to the next cell
The process in which a neurotransmitter binds to these receptors on the membrane of the receiving (postsynaptic) cell. Remaining neurotransmitter is either broken down enzymatically or reabsorbed
Botulism (disease involving synapse)
These toxins inhibit the release of acetylcholine. Primary symptom is muscle weakness
Antibodies block acetylcholine receptors. Primary symptom is muscle weakness
The minimum stimulus required for activation.
Resting membrane potential
When the cell is -70 millivolts
When the cell changes from its resting membrane potential to positively charged
Reverse from the normal condition of high internal levels of K+ & low internal levels of Na+ (maintained by active transport) w/ Na+ going in and K+ going out. This is how the neuron returns to its normal ionic state
When certain movements that involve sensory information are not processed by the brain. Speed is the reason for this because signals do not have to be sent up to & then return from the brain. Instead, the processing takes place in a region of the spinal cord.
(1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Its functions are processing of sensory information & memory
(1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Receives information & from muscles and sensory receptors, controls balance & coordinated movement.
(1 of 3 basic parts of brain). Controls many autonomic functions such as breathing & heart beat
(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Function is collecting sound & sending it to the eardrum through the auditory canal
(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Separated from the outer ear by the tympanic membrane (eardrum). Vibrations picked up by the tympanic membrane get passed through a series of small bones: "hammer anvil, & stirrup" (incus, malleus, & stapes).
Eustachian tube/auditory tube
How the middle ear is connected to the pharynx(throat). Its function is to equalize pressure.
(A disease involving the middle ear). Bacteria from the pharynx travel up the Eustachian tube to the middle ear & trigger inflammation & a painful buildup of fluid pressing on the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
(1 of 3 major regions of ear). Made up of the cochlea & 3 semicircular canals.
(Apart of the inner ear). Processes sound & sends the information down the auditory nerve.
(Also worded as vestibular apparatus) functions as balance and is sometimes referred to as dynamic equilibrium.
Controls a wide range of bodily functions. Metabolism, growth, reproduction, kidney function, temperature...
Chemical messengers used in the endocrine system
(1 of 2 basic type of hormones). Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, and aldosterone produced mainly by the testes, ovaries, & adrenal cortex.
(1 of 2 basic type of hormones). Also peptide hormones (all the others)
Hormones that effect endocrine glands
Endocrine Cells & Glands
Produce hormones which travel through the blood stream to the target organ(s) & have a specific effect on them.
Located just above the brainstem. Produces various hormones which stimulate or inhibit the pituitary gland as well as regulating autonomic functions such as body temperature.
Located below the hypothalamus. Produces Growth Hormone (HGH), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone), TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), Prolactin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) in the anterior lobe & oxytocin and ADH in the posterior lobe.