Human Anatomy and Physiology part 2

trocket52's version from 2015-10-03 21:45

Section 1

Question Answer
Digestive SystemDigesting food, metabolizing food, excrection of waste
Amylase(1 of 3 digestive enzymes) Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch
Proteases (1 of 3 digestive enzymes) Enzymes that break down protein. Present in saliva and gastric secretions
Lipases(1 of 3 digestive enzymes) Enzymes that break down lipids
MouthTeeth Start the mechanical breakdown of the food
Salivary GlandsSaliva starts the digestive process (via salivary enzymes). Saliva also acts a lubricant. The largest of the 3 salivary glands are the parotid glands
PharynxThe throat. Food passes through here from the mouth to the esophagus
Esophagus Muscular tube which leads to the stomach. Food is moved down by coordinated muscular contractions.
PeristalsisA valve (esophageal sphincter) that separates the esophagus from the stomach. Also contributes to movement of material through the intestines
Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)Improper function of the esophageal sphincter that could lead to stomach acid flowing up into the esophagus or beyond
StomachHas a muscular wall lined w/ mucus. Contains gastric enzymes & acid (pH 1) for breaking down food
DoudenumFirst portion of the intestine after the stomach.
Duodenal (pyloric) SphincterSeparates the duodenum from the stomach
Small Intestine(Ilium). Where the majority of digestion and nutrient absorption takes place.
VilliThe surface of ilium that is covered with thousands of these finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
Large Intestine(Colon). Waste is produced here. Water is absorbed. Its removal makes the contents more solid and produces feces or stool.
RectumThe final portion of the large intestine
AppendixAlso known as the vermiform appendix. A small pouch off the colon. It appears to serve as a refuge for beneficial bactiera.
Metabolism(In terms of Liver) Is important to ______ because it's involved in both the production and breakdown of proteins
Glycogen(In terms of Liver) Produces and breaks down ________, a storage form of glucose which is involved in regulating sugar levels & availability
Bile(In terms of Liver) ________ is produced and stored in the gallbladder and is involved in lipid metabolism
Toxins(In terms of Liver) breaks down ______ and as a result plays a role in drug metabolism
Gallbladder Releases bile into the duodenum. Bile is responsible for breaking down/emulsifying fats

Section 2

Question Answer
Excretory SystemRemoves waste & retains materials the body needs such as water
Kidneysthe major excretory organs. Have massive amounts of blood (from the renal artery & vein) flowing through them all the time. Remove waste from the blood stream as well as regulating blood pressure and electrolyte levels
NephronThe basic functional unit of the kidney. The kidney is made of many ________.
Renal CorpuscleWithin the nephron and is made of a Bowman's capsule surrounding the capillaries of a glomerulus
GlomerulusThe site in the kidney where filtration occurs
Renal TubuleCollects fluid from the glomerulus. This process involves active transport to eliminate the materials that are not wanted by the body (e.g.: urea) while reabsorbing those material that are wanted (glucose, Na+, and water)
Collecting DuctsCarry filtrate from the tubules to the ureters
UretersTubes which transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
BladderSite for storage of urine
UrethraUrine flows to the outside from the bladder by way of the ______