HSCI 212 - Infectious disease

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Section 1

Question Answer
Koch's postule 1the microorganism or other pathogen must be present in all cases of the disease
Koch's postule 2the pathogen can be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
Koch's postule 3the pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal
Koch's postule 4the pathogen must be reisolated from the new host and shown to be the same as the originally inoculated pathogen

Section 2

Question Answer
HIVsexual contact, exchange of body fluids via needles, mother to child
TBairborne, respiratory
Malaria - plasmodiumvector-borne, blood transfusions
Cholerafecal, oral
Zika virusvector-borne
Influenza H1N1respiratory
Lyme disease - borrelia bacteriavector-borne
E- colia bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, usually causes no harm, some strains can cause severe food poisioning esp in old people and children
Virusan infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to mulitiply only within the living cells of a host

Section 3

Question Answer
Virusa small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that can be helpful, such as those that live in our guts, or harmful, such as flesh-eating bacteria
Yeastsare unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae
Fungiany of a group of unicellular, multicellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools
Virus - envelopedmerge membranes,viruses exit through budding (does not kill host cell)
Virus - naked virusengulf, exit through Lysis (killing the cell)
Phagocytosisthe ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans
Lymphocytes is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells. They are the main type of cell found in lymph, which prompted the name lymphocyte.

Section 4

Question Answer
horizontal gene transferpassing to neighbours
vertical gene transferpassing to offspring
Agentis a factor whose presence or absence can cause disease ie: microbe, nutrient, poisons, physical trauma
Bacteriaa member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease
Hostthe individual human in whom an agent produces disease
Environmentrefers to all external conditions and influences affecting the life of living things

Section 5

Question Answer
Inflamationoccurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling. This helps isolate the foreign substance from further contact with body tissues
Antibodya blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen
Immune responce is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful
Anti presenting cell are specialized white blood cells that help fight off foreign substances that enter the body. These cells send out signals to T-cells (other immune system cells) when an antigen enters the body. Each type of T-cell is specially equipped to deal with different pathogens, which may be a bacteria, virus or toxin
Natural killer cells (NK)a lymphocyte able to bind to certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without the stimulation of antigens, and kill them by the insertion of granules containing perforin
Immunization is a way to trigger the immune response. Small doses of an antigen, such as dead or weakened live viruses, are given to activate immune system "memory" (activated B cells and sensitized T cells). Memory allows your body to react quickly and efficiently to future exposures.
Dendritic cellare present in small amounts in the body tissues that frequently come into contact with the external environment. They are present in the skin (where they are often called langerhans cells) and the inner lining of the nose, stomach, lungs and intestines. These cells have branched projections, called dendrites
B - cellUnlike the other two APCs, they produce antibodies (immunoglobulin) that are specific to certain antigens. B-cells are able to efficiently present the antigen to which their antibody is directed, but they are considered inefficient APCs for most other antigens

Section 6

Question Answer
Prevalence formula# of existing casas of a disease at a point in time / population at risk * 1000 population or 100%
Infectivivty formula# of infected / # of susceptible * 100%
Virulence formula# of deaths / with # with disease * 100%
Incidence rate formula# of new cases of disease occurring during a time period / total person years when people were at risk for developing the disease * 100 person years
Pathogenicity formula# with clinical disease / # of infected * 100%
Cumulative Incidence# of new cases within a time period # of people at risk in the population at the beginning of the time period * 100 population

Section 7

Question Answer
Innate immune responce refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body. This responce is activated by chemical properties of the antigen
Adaptive immune responcerefers to antigen-specific immune response. This response is more complex than the innate. The antigen first must be processed and recognized. Once an antigen has been recognized, the adaptive immune system creates an army of immune cells specifically designed to attack that antigen. Adaptive immunity also includes a "memory" that makes future responses against a specific antigen more efficient
Incubation periodis the time elapsed between exposure to an infectious agent and the onset of symptoms or signs of infection
Case-control studypoint in time or may collect retospective data
Cohort studyare followed over time (prospectively or retrospectively) exposed and not exposed, follow over time to determine disease over time
Randomized controlled triala study design that randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or a control group. As the study is conducted, the only expected difference between the control and experimental groups in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the outcome variable being studied
Epitopean epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells. For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope is called a paratope. Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also epitopes
Perforina protein, released by killer cells of the immune system, that destroys targeted cells by creating lesions like pores in their membranes
Study design descriptiveexamine the distribution of disease in a population and observe the basic features of this distribution
Study design analytictest a hypothic about the cause of a disease by studying how exposures relate to the disease
Study designtemporal nature
Cross- sectionalpoint in time
Clinical trialfollow subjects over time (prospectivly)
Analyticmeasure exposures and disease status in individuals to evluate associations

Section 8

Question Answer
Endemiccauses are continually occuring in the population
Epidemic or outbreaka notable excess of any disease over time/at a specific time; more cases than usually expected
Pandemicepidemics that have spread beyond their local region and are affecting people in various/all parts of the world

Section 9

Section 10