HSCI 120 Human sexuality

myemailisthecoolest's version from 2017-02-09 19:56

Section 1

Question Answer
Adultery Sexual intercourse between a married individual and someone who is not his or her spouse.
BDSMA type of role play or lifestyle choice between two or more individuals that involves a wide range of activities involving safe and consensual manipulations of erotic power. The term stands for “bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism and masochism.“
Body humoursThe four humours of Hippocratic medicine believed to directly influence an individual's temperament and health: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.
Charter of Rights and FreedomsThe Canadian bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada, which sets out the rights of all Canadians.
Nocturnal emissionAn involuntary ejaculation of semen during sleep (commonly known as “wet dreams“).
ContraceptionThe deliberate use of natural techniques, an artificially created barrier, or hormonal methods to prevent pregnancy as a result of sexual intercourse.
EthnocentrismThe tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is the norm, and to view other ethnicities or cultures as abnormal or different.
HysteriaA controversial mental illness/disease that was seen as being specific to women and characterized by the conversion of psychological stresses (specifically, sexual frustration) into physical symptoms, such as volatile emotions, dramatization, and attention-seeking behaviours.
LBGTIQQLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, two-spirited, intersex, queer, questioning
LibertinismA philosophy, lifestyle, or pattern of behaviour characterized by self-indulgence and lack of restraint, especially one involving sexual promiscuity.
MasochismThe practice of deriving pleasure or sexual gratification from the experience of suffering physical pain or humiliation.
Monotheistic religionsReligions that believe in only one deity, as opposed to those that believe in multiple deities
PhysiologicalRelating to the physical functioning of living organisms.
PolyamoryThe practice of having multiple sexual and/or conjugal partners; being romantically and sexually involved with more than one person at the same time.
PolyandryPolygamy in which a woman has more than one husband.
PolygamyThe practice or custom of having more than one wife or husband at the same time.
PolygynyPolygamy in which a man has more than one wife.
PsychoanalyticRelating to or incorporating the methods and theories of psychiatric treatment originated by Sigmund Freud.
R ratingRestricted rating from the Motion Picture Association of America, requiring individuals under the age of 17 to be accompanied by a parent or adult guardian.
ReproductionThe process by which new organisms (offspring) are produced from progenitor organisms (parents).
SadismThe practice of deriving pleasure or sexual gratification from inflicting pain, humiliation, or suffering on other people.
Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and FreedomsThe section of the Charter that deals with equality rights, such as the right to equal treatment before and under the law as well as equal protection and benefit of the law.
Sexual response cycleThe four-stage model of physiological responses during sexual stimulation proposed/discovered by Masters and Johnson's research. The phases are excitement, plateau, orgasmic, and resolution.
Sexual scriptA series of learned and predictable actions that lead up to sexual encounters
Sexually transmitted infection (STI)An illness, disease, or infection transmitted from one person to another by means of sexual behaviour, including sexual intercourse (both vaginal and anal), oral sex, and the use of sex toys.
WithdrawalA method of controlling fertility in which the man withdraws his penis from the woman's vagina before ejaculating, with the plan of preventing sperm from entering the cervix
Infanticide The act of killing a child within a year of its birth.
Menopause The stage of life at which a woman ceases to menstruate, usually between the ages of 45 and 55.

Section 2

Question Answer
Abstinence-only sexual health educationSexual health education programs focussed on teaching abstinence from sexual activity until marriage and/or a later time; information about contraception tends to be excluded from such programs
Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Education A comprehensive document that outlines best practices for teaching sexual health in Canada, based on research and clinical expertise from such fields as education, health promotion, medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work.
Ceiling effect A levelling off of an effect when something reaches its maximum impact on something else.
Comprehensive sexual health education Sexual health education programs that include information about contraception and avoidance of STIs as well as abstinence.
Negative sexual health outcomesNegative consequences relating to sexual health behaviours, including STIs, unintended pregnancy, sexual violence, sexual discrimination, sexual abuse, and sexual coercion.
Positive sexual health outcomes Positive outcomes relating to sexual satisfaction, exploring one’s sexual identity, making informed sexual decisions, and maintaining a healthy mental and physical state free from STIs, sexual violence, sexual discrimination, and sexual abuse.
Sexual health A state of sexual well-being that varies from person to person and is influenced by various socio-cultural factors and historical contexts.
Sexual health education A universal sexual right to access comprehensive sexual health information and other resources necessary to promote healthy sexuality and avoid negative outcomes.
Transphobia The fear, dislike, and/or intolerance of transgender or gender non-conforming individuals. Essay Topics
Why is motivation important to sexual health? How can motivation be taught?:A person’s choses their sex education, it is important to acknowledge motivators that may lead to negative health outcomes (e.g. shy about condom use talk), provide motivators that will instead encourage that behaviour (e.g. practice talking about condom use, discuss negative outcomes of not using condoms as a motivator to use condoms).
How does the level of sex education in new immigrants to Canada compare to Canadians who have lived here longer? What role do parents of immigrant children have in determining how much sex education their children receive?: New immigrants to Canada have had much less sex education that Canadians who have lived in Canada longer. Although sex educators in Canada are developing ways to provide culturally sensitive material to inform new immigrants about staying healthy, ultimately parents are given the authority to prevent their children from receiving this information if they do not wish their children to have it. (p. 487)
What are the five key principles identified as contributing to good sex education?: Accessibility, comprehensiveness, effectiveness, training and support, and program planning, evaluation and revision. (p. 468)
What is an example of an activity related to the social environment that may be taught to students in grade 9 in order to promote sexual health?: Students may search for birth control clinics on the internet or go to a store and buy condoms. (p. 473)
What could you say to a parent who is concerned that learning about sexual health will increase the likelihood that her teen will become sexually active?: Talking about sex does not seem to increase the likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviour. (p. 479)
What can we determine about the effectiveness of sex education in Canada from looking at sexual health outcomes?: Generally Canada is doing well with sex education, students are knowledgeable and teen pregnancy rates have dropped. STIs, however, are on the rise and this may be an indicator that sex education in Canada needs to put even more emphasis on condom use. (p. 478)
How is the appropriate program length determined?: The appropriate program length is the length of time it takes for the information to be learned and impact health outcomes. (p. 473).
What is an example of a positive sexual health outcome and an example of a negative sexual health outcome?: A positive sexual health outcome would be a reduction in the rate of STIs among young people, while a negative sexual health outcome might be an increase in the teen pregnancy rate. (p. 468)
What is an example of an institutional barrier to effective sex education?:school boards not implementing effective curriculums or teachers failing to consider sexual health to be an important subject and conveying their attitudes to students.
What are three things a person with a sexual partner can do to reduce his or her chances of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection?: First, the person should be screened regularly and tested if any symptoms of an STI appear. Second, the person should learn to have open communication about safe sex with their partner, particularly in regards to condom use and screening or testing for STIs. Third, the person should use condoms when they haven’t been screened or their partner has not been screened or if they have tested positive for an STI (p. 210).
Why are many STIs spread so easily from person to person?: There are two main reasons. First, many STIs do not show visible symptoms or the symptoms are initially painless (such as syphilis, HPV, or chlamydia). Without pain a person may not get screened for STIs. Second, many people choose not to use condoms for a variety of reasons, even when they have not been screened for STIs, so asymptomic people often pass infections along (see entire chapter).
What is the difference in treatment for most viral versus bacterial sexually transmitted infec-tions?Most viral infections, such as HPV and herpes cannot be cured (except hA and hB) so the infected person must always practice safe sex. bacterial infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, can be cured with antibiotics and infected people complete their meds and are tested to make sure the infection is gone, they do not have to worry about passing their infection to someone else (but still can catch from others)
How might a person have responded differently to an HIV/AIDS diagnosis in 1986 compared to a diagnosis in 1999?:In 1986, HIV/AIDS was still untreatable. Death occurred when the body could no longer defend itself against infections. People and drs would stigmatized .By 1999, antiretroviral invented HIV-positive people from developing the symptoms of AIDS. With adherence to the drug regimen, people living with HIV are expected to have a normal lifespan, safe sex to prevent the transmission of HIV to sexual partners
What sexually transmitted infection was deadly before the invention of antibiotics?: Syphilis (p. 185)

Section 3

Question Answer
Adherence The degree to which an individual takes medication or complies with other instructions of a health care provider
Anogenital Relating to the region of the anus and/or the genitals
Coinfection Infection with two or more STIs at one time.
Endemic Common or of chronic prevalence in a certain area.
EpididymitisInflammation of the epididymis
Incidence The frequency of occurrence of new cases of an infection or a disease (or other condition) in a de-fined population.
Mucosa The lining of the mouth, vagina, anus, and several other bodily orifices
Pathogens Bacteria or viruses that cause infection or disease.
Prodromal stage When premonitory symptoms (symptoms forecasting that there will be an outbreak in a few hours or days) are present.