HS Unit 2 Exam- Ch55 HIV & AIDS

icorojo's version from 2018-04-07 13:55

Section 1

Question Answer
Pathogen: defined any microorganism capable of producing disease
Pathology: definedthe study of the characteristics, causes, & effects of disease, as observed in the structure & function of the body
infectious agents that cause diseasebacteria, virus, yeast, fungi, & protozoa
Bacterial infections: transmissionfrom person to person by direct contact, by inhalation, & by indirect contact w/ articles contaminated w/ the pathogen; also via ingestion of contaminated food & drink
Bacterial infections: Txantibotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro) or doxycycline (Vibramycin)
Virus infections: transmissionvia respiratory tract, GI tract, & broken skin; sometimes via mosquito bites & accidental needle stick w/ a contaminated needle
Virus infection: Txvaccination containing denatured virus; antibodies do not alter the course of the vast majority of viral disease; difficult to tx
Yeastpart of the normal flora; can overgrow to become a pathogen
Fungimost common disease in humans; many are harmless while some are responsible for infections
Protozoasingle-celled animals; parasitic forms found in intestinal tract, the genitourinary tract, respiratory tract, GI tract, & circulatory system of humans & other animals

The Chain of Infection (p. 117)

Question Answer
6 elements necessary for infection & are referred to as the chain of infectioninfectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, host
1. Infectious agenta pathogen
2. Reservoirwhere the pathogen can grow
3. Portal of exitexit route from the reservoir
4. Mode of transmissionmethod or vehicle of transportation, such as exudate, feces, air droplets, hands, & needles
5. Portal of entryentrance via skin, mucous lining, or mouth
6. Hostanother person or animal that is susceptible to the pathogen
How to prevent the transmission of an infection?the cycle (chain of infection) must be interrupted; medical asepsis is an effective way to cause disruption
What is a nurse's role in providing a safe environment?by working to prevent the transmission of infection

Section 3

Question Answer
Blood borne pathogen: definedinfectious agent or microorganisms in human BLOOD that cause disease
Blood born pathogen: 3 examplesHIV, AID, & Hepatitis
What virus causes HIV infection?Retrovirus
Retrovirus: defined (*in layman's terms*)a type of virus that inserts its own DNA genome into a host cell, replicates & duplicates itself, killing the host so more viruses can emerge
What is HIV?Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV-1found throughout the world & responsible for the majority of HIV infection cases
HIV-2found primarily in West Africa
What are the 2 phases of HIV disease?asymptomatic (w/o sx or signs of disease) & symptomatic (having characteristics of a symptom or indications of a specific disease)
What is ART?antiretroviral therapy; a substance or drug that that stops or suppresses the activity of retroviruses
What is AZT?azidothymidine is an FDA approved antiviral drug; most effective in slowing HIV production; decreases viral load, increases host T4 cells, killing some of the virus, prolongs survival

Section 4

Question Answer
Immunity: definedthe quality of being unsusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition
CD4+ Lymphocyte: defineda type of white blood cell; a protein on the surface of cells that normally helps the body's immune system combat disease
HIV: transmissionfrom human to human via blood, semen, cervicovaginal secretions, & breast milk
HIV: transmission via other body fluidssaliva, urine, tears, feces; no evidence these body fluids are a source of HIV transmission UNLESS they contain VISIBLE BLOOD
HIV: common modes of transmissionsexual intercourse, injectable drug abuse, mother to child (perinatally)
Who is at risk for HIV infection?those engaged in promiscuous sexual behavior, injectable drug users, hemophiliacs, fetus of infected mother, health care workers, incompetent immune systems, older adults, malnourished
Ways to prevent HIV infection?abstinence, protected sex, screening blood donors supply, using universal precautions, avoidance of IV drugs, never share needless or paraphernalia
Severity & progression of HIV to AID depends on?depends upon the host immune response
What is the solution for cleaning blood & bodily fluids?1:10 bleach solution
When does HIV become AIDS?when CD4+ T lymphocyte cell drops to 200/mm (per cubic millimeter) or lower
What diagnostic tests is necessary for diagnosing HIV?ELISA test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay); blood is tested for the presence of antibodies to the HIV infection; presence of antibodies results are positive, HIV antibodies not found, results said to be negative
What is the Western blot test?diagnostic test used to CONFIRM HIV diagnosis; only conducted IF ELISA test is positive; this test is more expensive, but most accurate
What is AIDS?acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; the end stage of HIV infection
Antibody detection testELISA (blood), Agglutination assays (blood or clean catch urine), Oral fluid tests (swab cheeks test), Urine screening test
Confirmatory testWestern Blot (interpreted by a pathologist); completed if findings are positive

Opportunistic Infections_Precautions_Signs & Symptoms:

Question Answer
Hepatotoxicalcohol & some Meds that can damage the liver
Toxoplasmosisan opportunistic infections; neurological complications- it is a parasitic infection causing brain inflammation
Kaposi's sarcomaan opportunistic infection; a rare cancer of the skin & mucous membranes characterized by blue, red, or purple raised lesions
Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumoniaan opportunistic infection; an unusual pulmonary disease caused by a fungus that primarily infects people who have suppressed immune systems
Opportunistic: definedcaused by normally nonpathogenic organisms in a host whose resistance has been decreased by such disorders as HIV disease
Tuberculosisan opportunistic infection; a disease spread by dropletts
Standard Precautionspromote hand hygiene & the use of protective personal equipment (PPE)
Universal Precautionsdesigned to prevent the transmission of blood-borne disease & pathogens when first aid or health care is provided *blood & certain body fluids of all PT are considered to be potentially infectious*
U.S percentagesmore than 1.2 million living w/ HIV/AIDS *15.8% of these are undiagnosed
Signs & symptoms of HIVcan be asymptomatic or vague flu-like sx; abdominal pain, chills & fever, cough (dry or productive), diarrhea, fatigue, headache, & Lymphadenopathy (any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels)
Signs & symptoms of Early Symptomatic PhaseCD4 cell count drops below 500; malaise, neurological sx, fever, night sweats/chills, sore throat, persistent cough, skin conditions, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, wt loss, white spots (thrush)