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HS Unit 1 Exam- Ch10 Safety

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icorojo's version from 2018-04-07 13:56

SAFETY IN THE HOSPITAL OR HEALTH CARE ENVIRONMENT:

Question Answer
A safe environment implies ___freedom from injury with a focus on preventing falls, electrical injuries, fires, burns, & poisoning
Who is responsible for providing a safe environment?The responsibility for providing and maintaining a safe environment involves the PT, visitors, & members of the health care team
What is a nurses role in ensuring safety?The nurse must be aware of potential safety problems & must know how to report & respond when safety is threatened
What is The Joint Commission?The governing body that dictates safety goals; each year they release national PT safety goals for health care facilities
Sentinel event: definedany unexpected occurrence involving death or serious or psychological injury, or the risk thereof
Sentinel event: examplesmedication errors & errors in procedures & treatments that led to death of an individual & inappropriate application of SRD
memorize

FALLS:

Question Answer
Majority of falls occur _during transfer either to a BSC or WC
A fall risk assessment _is important to perform on admission to the unit & whenever a significant change in the PT condition has occured
Fall precaution #1 (Box 10-1)Keep environment free of clutter b/c such items as books, magazines, & shoes sometimes cause PT to trip & fall
Fall precaution #2 (Box 10-1)Keep adjustable beds in the low position except when giving care
Fall precaution #3 (Box 10-1)Lock wheels on beds, WC, & gurneys
Fall precaution #4 (Box 10-1)Encourage PT to wear nonslip slippers or shoes when ambulating
Environmental safety precautions: examplesbed locked & in low position, call bell & personal items w/in reach, clear pathways, nonskid footwear
Gait belts are _another way to help PT ambulate safety
Gait belts: functiona canvas (or other very strong material) belt that encircles the PT waist (some belts have handles attached for the staff to grip) while the PT ambulates
Gait belts: **technique disclaimer***Unless the PT has a tendency to lean toward one particular side, walk on the PT weaker side so that you are able to give assistance if the PT starts to fall
Fall risk assessment: sample question 1 (Box 10-2)Is there a history of fall(s) in the past year?
Fall risk assessment: sample question 2 (Box 10-2)Does PT have have an unsteady gait or difficulty ambulating?
Fall risk assessment: sample question 3 (Box 10-2)Does the PT require equipment to assist in ambulating?
memorize

SAFETY REMINDER DEVICES:

Question Answer
What is SRD?Safety Reminder Device
SRD: definedany of the numerous devices used to immobilize a PT or part of the PT body, such as arms or hands
The use of SRD _also tends to result in increased restlessness, disorientation, agitation, anxiety, & a feeling of powerlessness
SRD may be used _for various reasons but are primarily for considerations of PT safety
Per Joint Commission SRD are to be used as aide w/o confinement
SRD: disadvantage 1contributes to PT immobility, dehydration, & incontinence
SRD: disadvantage 2increased skin tears & circulation problems
Focus should be _to try alternative strategies before turning to use of SRDs
memorize

OLDER ADULTS:

Question Answer
Changes associated w/ aging _significantly affect the ability of older adults to protect themselves from injury
Physiologic change 1unsteadiness in gait causes fails, unsteadiness in hands could cause spills/burns
Physiologic change 2Vision changes may affect the ability to see the height of stairs
Physiologic change 3Vertigo may occur due to disease and/or medications
memorize

LATEX SENSITIVITY & MERCURY SPILLS:

Question Answer
Latex SensitityA latex allergy can precipitate a respiratory arrest, which is a life-threatening event
Latex Sensitivity: Contact dermatitisA nonallergic response characterized by skin redness and itching
Latex Sensitivity: Type 1 hypersensitivityA true latex allergy that is possibly life threatening. Sx include hives, generalized edema, itching, rash, wheezing, bronchospam, difficulty breathing....
Mercury SpillMercury enters the body via inhalation & absorption via the skin
Mercury spill: exposureExposures that occur in a health care facility setting are usually brief but still have the potential to affect the brain or kidney
memorize

WORKPLACE SAFETY:

Question Answer
Hospital environment _is a source of potential safety hazards for health care workers; various biologic, chemical, radiologic, & physical hazards are present
Immunization programs_help protect hospital personnel and, in turn, PT at risk of being infected by hospital personnel
Needle sticks are _another source of potential injury to health care personnel; reduce risk by NEVER RECAPPING needles after use
What is NIOSH?National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; focuses on safety & issues related to health
What is OSHA? Occupational Safety & Health Administration; a federal organization that provides guidelines to help reduce safety hazards in the workplace
Hazard Communication Actrequires health care facilities to inform employees about the presence of or potential for harmful exposures & how to reduce the risk of exposure
What is CDC?a federal agency that provides facilities & services for the investigation, identification, prevention, & control of disease
CDC also _provides guidelines for working with infectious PT
memorize

FIRE EXTINGUISHER:

Question Answer
Type Apaper, wood, cloth
Type Bflammable liquid fires --grease & anesthetics
Type Celectrical
Type ABCacceptable for any type of fire
RACERescue PT, sound the Alarm, Confine the fire, & Extinguish or Evacuate
PASSPull the pin, Aim low, Squeeze handle, Sweep the unit
In the event of firerescue PT in IMMEDIATE danger, & then follow the facilities procedure for activating the fire alarm & reporting the location & extent of the fire
memorize

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE (BOX 10-7)

Question Answer
Workplace violence: definedany intense extreme behavior used to frighten, intimidate, threaten, or injure a person or damage or destroy property
Violence does not _always involve physical injury; sometimes verbal or nonverbal such as a gesture
Risk factor 1on-site presence of PT families, friends, & coworkers in the possession of handguns
Risk factor 2PT who are hospitalized & under police custody at the same time
Risk factor 3on-site presence of acutely disturbed & violent people seeking treatment
Risk factor 4on-site presence of upset, agitated, & disturbed family members & visitors
Risk factor 5long ED waits that increase a person's agitation & frustration
Safety measure 1stand away from the person
Safety measure 2 be calm and use calm tone
Safety measure 3keep your hands free
Safety measure 4wear pull away badge
Safety measure 5don't touch the person
memorize

ACCIDENTAL POISONING:

Question Answer
Poison: definedany substance that is harmful to your body when ingested (eaten), inhaled, injected, or absorbed via the skin. **Any substance can be poisonous if too much is taken**
Poison control centers _are valuable sources of information when poisoning occurs or is suspected
Nurses must ensure _that the closest poison control center phone number be clearly posted in the PT home & in the health care facility
Childhood poisoning _ is one of the major causes of death in children under 5 y/o
Older adult: risk 1changes associated w/ aging interfere w/ the individual's ability to absorb or excrete drugs
Older adult: risk 2may share drugs w/ friends or limit medication b/c of expense
Older adult: risk 3changes in eyesight may lead to ab accidental ingestion
Older adult: risk 4if elderly PT have memory impairment, likely to forget when last took either prescribed or OTC meds
Prevention 1remove toxic agents from areas where poisoning could occur
Prevention 2Toxic or poisonous substances should not be removed from their original containers
Prevention 3Poisonous substances should be labeled conspicuously & stored appropriately
memorize

DISASTER PLANNING:

Question Answer
disaster situation: definedan uncontrollable, unexpected, psychologically shocking event that is unique & likely to have a signifiant impact on a variety of health care facilities
disaster situation: examplesearthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tornados, bombings, arson, riots, & hostage-taking
Health care facilities are expected _ to receive victims & survivors to assist rescuers
External disasteroriginates outside the health care facility & results in an influx of casualties brought to the facility
Internal disasteran extraordinary situation that is brought about by events w/in the health care facility, such as a fire
memorize

TERRORISM & BIOTERRORISM & CHEMICAL TERRORISM:

Question Answer
Terrorism: defineda violent or dangerous act used to intimidate or coerce a person or government to further a political or social agenda
Bioterrorism: definedthe use of biologic agents to create fear & threat
Nurses must _ be prepared to make accurate & timely assessments in any type of setting in the event of a bioterrorist attack
Health care facilities must _ be prepared to treat mass casualties from an attack
Terrorism via Nuclear Exposureless than 0.75 Gy is absorbed, PT usually has no symptoms; 8 Gy absorption, PT usually dies; absorption of 30 Gy is always fatal
Chemical terrorism: types of agentspulmonary agents, incapacitating agents, cyanide agents, nerve agents, vesicant agents
memorize