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HS Unit 1 Exam- Ch1 Healthcare Delivery Systems

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icorojo's version from 2018-04-07 13:54

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS:

Question Answer
health care system: defineda NETWORK of agencies, facilities, and providers involved with healthcare in a specified geographic area
health care system: goalto achieve optimal levels of health care for a defined population
memorize

WELLNESS-ILLNESS CONTINUUM:

Question Answer
What is a Wellness-Illness Continuum?The range of a person's total health
wellness: defineda dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses towards a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimal balance between internal & external environment.
wellness: goalHighest level of optimal health
illness: defineda diminished or impaired state of health
How does a nurse provide balanced care?Consideration of the interrelationships among the factors that impact levels of wellness is of paramount importance when the nurse is planning and providing care.
What factors impact wellness?age, gender, family relationships, emotional stressors, ethnic and cultural influences, & economic status
holistic health care: defineda system of comprehensive or total patient care that considers the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of a person
holistic health care: goalan all-inclusive approach to health care
How does the wellness-illness continuum model help a nurse?These models enable the nurse to understand the patient's level of wellness and position on the continuum.
memorize

MASLOW'S MODEL OF HEALTH & ILLNESS:

Question Answer
5 essential human needsPhysiologic, Safety & Security, Love & Belongingness, Esteem, & Self-Actualization
Physiologic needs: examplesNutrition, elimination, oxygenation, sexuality
Safety & Security needs: examplesStability, protection, security, freedom from fear and anxiety
Love and Belongingness needs: examplesAffection, acceptance by peers and community
Esteem needs: examplesSelf-respect, self-confidence, feelings of self-worth
Self-Actualization needs: examplesFull use of individual talents
Maslow's hierarchy, pyramid: conceptA person has to meet needs at the base of the pyramid before advancing to the needs higher on the pyramind
Are the needs placed high on the pyramid required?Those needs placed higher on the pyramid are not requirements for life but rather enhance it
How will patients view their needs?Each patient may view or prioritize individual needs according to his or her own value system
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HEALTH PROMOTION & ILLNESS PREVENTION:

Question Answer
What are the 3 organized levels of health promotion?Maintain wellness, Preventing disease-related complications, Management of care of those with serious health problems
How has the focus of health care changed today?Today's focus has broadened to include an emphasis on an awareness of the causes of disease and the prevention of its spread through the use of health promotion activities
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CONTINUITY OF CARE:

Question Answer
What is the focus of the health care system?patient
Challenge of medical careartful navigation of the health care delivery system.
memorize

DELIVERY OF PATIENT CARE:

Question Answer
What does patient care involve?It involves not only treating disease & injury, but also preventing disease, restoring optimal wellness through rehabilitation, caring for the chronically ill, and educating patients and families.
Nurse's ROLE in patient care?Identify the individual needs of the patient and to plan a systematic approach to meet those needs
HOW does a nurse meet patient needs?developing an individualized care plan using the nursing process
What is the PURPOPSE of the care plan?to meet the expressed needs of the patient
memorize

PARTICIPANTS IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM:

Question Answer
What is UAP?Unlicensed assistive personnel
Role of UAPis educated in basic nursing techniques and performs under the supervision of the RN
memorize

ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH & ILLNESS:

Question Answer
Rising Health Care Costs: factorsaging population, increased use of advanced technologies, rising cost of private health care insurance, the rising cost of malpractice insurance, & a struggling economy
Increasing number of aging Americansan increasing number of older adults needs nursing home care, which is costly & has limited coverage under traditional insurance plans
Advances in technologyResearch & the development of technology cost millions of dollars, a price that is passed on to the patient in the cost of the individual tests or treatments.
Health care insurance: developmentPrivate health care insurance was initially developed to defray some or all of the cost of healthcare
Health care insurance: effectIt made health care more affordable, but it also raised the demand for it. As more individuals sought care, the price of health care services & insurance costs spiraled.
Health care insurance: percentagenearly 16% of Americans or 48 million people are without health care coverage
Malpractice insurance: "defensive medicine"physicians become overly cautious our of fear of a claim, ordering costly tests & procedures not because they are medically necessary, but to protect themselves.
Malpractice insurance: "defensive medicine" effectsThese behaviors have resulted in higher medical costs for the patient
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CHANGES IN DELIVERY SYSTEM:

Question Answer
Why are hospitals changing delivery systems?to make care more cost effective
What are the two common methods used to modify the systems?Case management and cross training
Case management nursingrevolves around the use of clinical pathways, which map out expectations of the hospitalization according to a designated time frame
Case management nursing: effecthas been proven to REDUCE THE LENGTH OF STAY for patients, which in turn reduces the overall cost of the patient's health care
Cross trainingallows employers to maximize the use of available staff
What is HMO?Health maintenance organizations
HMO functiongroup health care practices provide health care to members for a FIXED PREPAID RATE
memorize

HEALTH PROMOTION & PATIENT RIGHTS:

Question Answer
Patient Rights: Patient Care Partnership1.High-quality hospital care 2.A clean safe environment 3.Involvement in their care & the decision-making process 4.Protection of privacy 5.Help when leaving the hospital 6.Help with billing concerns
Health care provider rightsprofessionals expect PT to take an active role in the planning process, have an understanding of the care & treatment given, ask questions, follow the treatment plan prescribed, act responsibly with respect to their own conditions, & give health care workers the same respect to which PT are entitled
Who has a right to health care?everyone, regardless of race, color, creed, or economic status
What should health include?treatment of disease, health promotion, and preventive medicine
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INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH CARE:

Question Answer
WHAT is the primary goal of health care?the optimal physical, mental, and social well-being of the patient
HOW is the primary goal of health care achieved?by promoting and restoring health within the wellness-illness continuum
What is an interdisciplinary approach?health care personnel, working to meet patient needs, together as a health care TEAM
Interdisciplinary approach: goalprevents the fragmentation of patient care
Interdisciplinary approach: achievedEach member of the team is responsible for coordinating activity with every other member of the team by developing a comprehensive care plan, effectively communicating, & keeping accurate records
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NURSING CARE MODELS:

Question Answer
4 concepts for nursing care modelsNursing, Patient, health, Environment
Nursing: conceptencompasses the roles and actions of the nurse
Patient: conceptthe individual who receives the care
Health: conceptthe area along the wellness-illness continuum that the patient occupies
Environment: conceptthe setting for the nurse-patient interacion
memorize

CONTEMPORARY PRACTICAL & VOCATIONAL NURSING CARE:

Question Answer
What is new to LPN/LVN?the expansion of the roles and responsibilities from bathing PT & doing light housekeeping to performing skilled tasks needed to provide health care to people along the wellness-illness continuum.
Ongoing evolution of LPN/LVN roles are influenced by?various state nurse practice acts, individual changes within the healthcare agencies, the availability of health care workers, & the needs of patients
What is a nurse practice act?All states and territories have enacted a nurse practice act (NPA); each NPA establishes a board of nursing (BON); The practice of nursing is a right granted by a state to protect those who need nursing care. The guidelines of the NPA and its rules provide safe parameters within which to work, as well as protect patients from unprofessional and unsafe nursing practice.
memorize

PRACTICAL & VOCATIONAL NURSE DEFINED:

Question Answer
LPN/LVN: definedthe activity of providing specific services to PT under the direct supervision of a registered nurse or licensed physician
LPN/LVN: educationeducated to be a responsible member of a health care team, performing basic therapeutic, rehabilitative, & preventive care to assigned PT
LPN/LVN: functionto assist individuals, sick or well, in the performance of those activities that contribute to health, to their recovery, or to a peaceful death, & if feasible, to do this in such a way as to help PT gain independence as rapidly as possible
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OBJECTIVE & CHARACTERISTICS OF LPN/LVN EDUCATION:

Question Answer
Objective 1to acquire the specialized knowledge & skills needed to meet the health care needs of patients in a variety of settings
Objective 2to be a graduate of a state-approved practical or vocational nursing program
Objective 3to take & pass the NCLEX-PN examination
Objective 4to acquire a state license to practice
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ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES:

Question Answer
What is NAPNES?National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Services
Responsibility 1demonstarte professional accountability according to legal and ethical standards
Responsibility 2effectively communicate
Responsibility 3collect and communicate assessment data from multiple sources
Responsibility 4collaborate with health care team
Responsibility 5plan care/ revise plan of care based on nursing diagnosis
Responsibility 6demonstrate a caring and empathic approach to safe care
Responsibility 7implement PT care under the direct supervision of RN, licensed physician, or dentist
memorize