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Hormone Types

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debbiefadoju's version from 2017-02-08 02:09

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Question Answer
How is a peptide hormone made?Manufactured as larger preprohormones in rough ER. The Preprohormone is cleaved in ER lumen and becomes prohormone. Transported to Golgi. Golgi modifies it and releases it.
Peptide hormone classificationLipophobic
Peptide hormone classificationhydrophillic
Peptide hormoneLipophobic
Peptide hormone classificationlipophillic
Peptide hormone classicationhyrdrophillic
Peptide Hormone ExamplesAnt Pituitary FLAT PG Follicle Stimulating Hormone Luteinizing Hormone ACTH TSH Prolactin Endorphins Growth Hormone
Post. Pituiatry: ADH and oxytocin
Parathyroid hormone
Pancreatic: Glucagon insulin
Thyroid C cell: Calcitonin
Peptide method of action1. Increase membrane permeability by binding to ligand gated channel
2. Activate second messenger system. (Protein binds to cell membrane receptor. Which activates inner membrane enzyme adenyl-cyclase. adenyl cyclase turns into cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinase. Turning off and on proteins
3. Increasing transcription
Steroid Hormone method of actionDiffuse into membrane and directly influence transcription. Bind to DNA, cause more proteins to be synthesize product
Steroid Hormone is derived from?Cholesterol Lipids
Steroid Hormone ClassificationLipophillic
Steroid Hormone ClassificationHydrophobic
Steroid Hormone movement through blood Lipid-soluble hormones (e.g., steroids, calcitriol, and thyroid hormone) do not readily dissolve within the aqueous environment of the blood. Thus, the transport of lipid-soluble hormones in the blood requires carrier molecules.
Steroid Hormone examplesprogesterone, testosterone, and estrogen (gonadal) aldosterone and cortisol (mineral and glucocoritcoids of adrenal)
Amine Hormones exampleCatecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine); thyroid hormones: (thyroxine)
Amine Hormone classificationepinephrine and norepinephrine are lipophobic ; thyroxine is lipophillic
Epinephrine classificationlipophobic
Tyrosine derivitive hormone (thyroxine)lipophillic
Which hormones are fast and fleetingHydrophillic (Peptide hormone and Amine 1 (Catceholamines and sex hormones)
Why are these homones fast and fleeting1. Free floating They dissolve readily in blood plasma (fast) 2. They can easily be cleared (fleeting)
Which hormones have effects that are slow and sustainedNonpolar, hydrophobic, lipophillic.
Examples of these hormones that are slow and sustainedSteroid Hormones glucorticoids and mineralcorticoids (cortisol and aldosterone) gonadal hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
Why are these hormones effects slow and sustained?1. Not free floating. Need carrier proteins to travel in blood plasma (slow). 2. Sequester in fatty tissues of the body, hiding from enzymes that would dissolve them (sustained). 3. Act at the level of transcription, so the target cell response is slow.
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