Hormone lecture

olola's version from 2016-12-02 11:11


Question Answer
____ sensitizes the heart to circulating catecholamines, thus epi is contraindicated if pt has _____T3; hyperthyroidism
main treatment for HypothyroidismLevothyroxine sodium (Synthroid =T4) others include desiccated thyroid, liothyronine sodium (T3), liotrix (T3+T4 at 4:1)
Graves Disease aka _____HypERthyroidism- sensitivity to catecholamines, exophthalmos, increased metabolism/cardiac function
treatment for Hyperthyroidismradioactive iodine (131I), contraindicated in children and preggers
side effects of agranulocytosis, rashes, pain, joint stiffness, paresthesias, loss of pigmentation of hairThioamides (propylthiouracil, methimazole), used to treat Hyperthyroidism
examples of ThioamidesPropylthiouracil, Methimazole
examples of Ionic inhibitorsThiocyanate, Perchlorate (resemble iodine and interfere with iodine uptake into thyroid gland)
treatment of thyrotoxic crisisIodide + Propranolol
adverse effects of IodideHypersensitivity, Chronic iodism toxicity (unpleasant taste, burning mouth, burning throat, increased salivation)
dental implications of Hypothyroidismexaggerated responses to CNS depressants
dental implications of Hyperthyroidismhyperactivity, sensitive to epi, propranolol alleviates adrenegic symptoms (sweating, tremor, tachycardia)
_____ regulates PTH Indirectly by forming a complex with calciumphosphate (PTH increases calcium levels and decreases phosphate levels)
primary target tissues for PTHbone and kidney
T/F? PTH increases bone resorptiontrue! PTH increases bone resorption by increasing calcium and phosphate release
activate form of vitamin Dcalcitriol
calcitonin secretion is stimulated byincreased extracellular calcium, CCK, gastrin
T/F? Calcitonin increases bone resorptionFalse! Calcitonin inhibits osteoclasts and bone resorption
what is used to treat Paget's disease?Calcitonin
Salmon calcitonin. what's up?salmon calcitonin is more potent and has longer half life than mammalian calcitonin idk why the fuck we have to know that
common name for vitamin D2ergocalciferol
common name for vitamin D3cholecalciferol
net effect of Vitamin Dinc both serum Ca and phosphate
examples of bisphosphonatesEtidronate, Aldendronate, Ibandronate inhibit bone resorption, used to treat osteoporosis, Paget's, malignant bone disease
major adverse effect of bisphosphonatesGI disturbances
T/F? Glucagon has inotropic and chronotropic effects and rapidly degradedtrue
glucagon is used foremergency in hypoglycemic shock, reverse cardiac effect of Beta blockers
insulin binds to a large transmembrane glycoprotein receptor to form a _____B-a-a-B heterotetramer
lactic acidosis is a rare side effect of ______Biguanides Metformin
hepatitis is a side effect of _____Thiazolidinediones (Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone), Halothanes (gen ane)
Main plasma androgen in MEN is ______, Main plasma androgen in WOMEN is _____Testosterone; Androstenedione
patients taking a-glucosidase inhibitors need ____glucose, not sucrose
T/F Testosterone is given orallyFALSE! Testosterone undergoes extensive 1st pass effect and isn’t given orally
Rare hepatic necrosis or hepatocellular tumor is a rare complication of _____Androgens
Androgen drug interactionsAndrogens + Hepatotoxic drugs = Liver cirrhosis
Testosterone changes to _____ in vivo via _____Estradiol; Aromatase
most potent and major estrogen in premenopausal womenEstradiol
major estrogen in postmenopausal women and menEstrone
Birth control: ____ increases risk of endometrial cancer, while ____ decrease riskEstrogen; Progestin
Estrogen receptor antagaonist used as adjunct for breast neoplasm and prophylaxis for high risk breast cancerTamoxifen
cholestatic jaundice associated withSulfonylureas, Antipsychotics, TCAs
diagnosis of diabetes- Normal Fasting blood sugar level = ___, Random blood sugar level = ____80-100 mg/dL, 120-180 mg/dL
Glycosylation of Hb in diabetes- Hb is glycosylated on its ____ residueValine (forming the glycosylated valine adduct HbA1c), half-life of HbA1c = half life of RBC
normal HbA1c level7% or less
injectable insulin alternativesLiraglutide, Exenatide, Albiglutide, Dulaglutide ((end in "-tide") these act like GLP-1, side effects include Upper RT infection, diarrhea, nausea, skin reaction
T/F? Ketoacidosis is treated with insulin but not with oral hypoglycemic drugsTrue
rare adverse effect of insulin therapyLipodystrophy lipoatrophy (depression in the skin) or lipohypertrophy (enlargement/thickening of tissue)
Disulfiram-like adverse effectSulfonylurea, an oral hypoglycemic agent
adverse effects include transient GI symptoms, reduction in Vitamin B12, lactic acidosisBiguanide (Metformin)
Act synergistically with sulfonylureas and metforminThiazolidinediones (side effects are fluid retention, hepatitis- check liver enzyme every 6 months)
Progesterone is synthesized and released bycorpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex
used to decrease nocturnal enuresis and to treat diabetes insipidus (act on collecting duct)Desmopressin
used for bleeding control in hemophilia and to treat diabetes insipidus (act on collecting duct)Vasopressin/ADH
dopamine agonists used to treat infertilityBromocriptine, Cabergoline
uses of Somatotropin(aka Growth hormone) treatment of growth failure in children, AIDS wasting complication, somatotropin-deficiency syndrome and for “anti-aging” effects; abused by athletes to increase lean body mass
differences of T3 and T4T3 has 4x greater potency but less abundant than T4 (thyroxine), has greater affinity for receptors, sensitizes the heart to catecholamines