Homeostasis-lecture 4 pt1 (3 canceled) Urinary system

winniesmith1's version from 2017-03-06 21:20

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the urinary system include2 kidneys, 2 ureters (paired tubes), 1 urinary bladder (muscular sac), 1 urethra (exit tube).
What does the kidneys doproduces urine. (left kidney is higher than right kidney)
What does the ureters do transports urine toward the urinary bladder
What does the urinary bladder dotemporarily stores urine prior to elimination.
What does the urethra doconducts urine to exterior; in males, transports semen as well.

Section 2

Question Answer
Functions of the urinary system: homeostaticly regulates whatblood ionic composition, blood pH, blood volume, blood glucose levels
blood ionic compositionSodium (Na+), potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), chloride (Cl-) and phosphate (HPO42-)
blood pHexcretion of hydrogen ions (H+) into urine and conservation of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
blood volume: the kidneys adjust blood volume by conserving or eliminating water in urine. ↑ blood volume = ↑ blood pressure; ↓blood volume ↓blood pressure
blood glucose levelsthe kidneys use the amino acid glutamine for the synthesis of new glucose molecules (gluconeogenesis). Release of glucose into the blood to help maintain a normal blood glucose level

Section 3

Question Answer
How does the urinary system aid enzymatic regulation of blood pressureby secreting the enzyme renin which causes increase in blood pressure
Homeostatic maintenance of blood osmolarityby separately regulating loss of water and loss of solutes in the urine the kidneys mantain a relatively constant blood osmolarity (concentration of the total number of dissolved particles)
Production of hormonesthe kidneys produce calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D helps regulate calcium homeostasis) and erytropoetin (stimulates the production of red blood cells
Urinary system allows excretion ofwastes (ammonia, urea, bilirubin, creatinine and uric acid) and foreign substances (drugs and environmental toxins)
what is elimination?Discharge of these waste products into the environment (ureters, bladder and urethra).

Section 4

Question Answer
Where are the kidneys locatedretroperitoneal, lying against the dorsal body wall in the upper abdomen
Where is the adrenal (suprarenal) gland locatedpart of the endocrine system, lies on top of each kidney
Which structures enter or exit the kidney at the renal hilum (concave surface)ureter and the renal vein, which drains into the inferior vena cava.
Each kidney is protected and stabilized byfibrous capsule, perinephric fat capsule and renal fascia
What does the fibrous capsule doA layer of collagen fibers. Covers outer surface of entire organ
What does the perinephric fat capsule doA thick layer of adipose tissue. Surrounds renal capsule.
What does the renal fascia doA dense, fibrous outer layer. Anchors kidney to surrounding structures.

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the size of a typical adult kidneyabout 10 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick (4 in. x 2.2 in. x 1.2 in.) Weighs about 150 g (5.25 oz)
Describe the blood supply to the kidneysless than 0.5% of total body weight but receive 20–25% of total cardiac output. 1200 mL of blood flows through kidneys each minute. Kidney receives blood through renal artery. Segmental and interlobar arteries branch from renal artery. Together, these vessels provide the kidneys with a rich blood supply under high pressure that allows them to continuously filter and cleanse the blood.
Internal structure of the kidneyRenal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis.
Structure/function of renal cortexThe outermost layer is called the renal cortex. It contains about one million nephrons, the filtering units that form urine. • Types of Nephrons: • Cortical nephrons - lie largely within the cortex • Juxtamedullary nephrons - lie in both the cortex and medulla
Structure/function of renal medullaThe middle layer is called the renal medulla, in which you can see the triangular renal pyramids. These pyramids look striated because of parallel bundles of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons. • The areas between pyramids are the renal columns. They are extensions of the cortex that provide a route for the passage of blood vessels and nerves to and from the outer cortex
Structure/function of renal pelvisThe funnel-shaped renal pelvis is within the renal sinus. The renal pelvis collects urine from the pyramids and conveys it into the ureter for passage to the urinary bladder.