vanya's version from 2019-03-21 13:00


Books written by Kings
Book Author Language
Question Answer
Ratnavali Priyadarsika Nagananda Harshavardhana Sanskrit
Amuktamalayada Sri Krishna Deva Raya Telugu
Tuzk-I-Jahangir Jahangir Persian
Babar Namah or Tuzk-e-Babari Babar Chagatai
Biographies of Kings
Book Author Language
Question Answer
Harsha Charita Bana Bhatt Sanskrit
Akbar-Nama Abul Fazl Persian
Prithviraj Raso Chand Bardai Brajbhasha
Humayun Namah Gulbadan Begum Persian
Shah Namah Firdausi Persian
Buddha Charitam Ashwaghosha Sanskrit
Geet Govinda Jaya Deva Sanskrit
Abhigyan Shakuntalam Kalidasa Sanskrit
Kumar Sambhava Kalidasa Sanskrit
Meghdoot Kalidasa Sanskrit
Malavikagnimitra Kalidasa Sanskrit
Raghuvansha Kalidasa Sanskrit
Mudra Rakshasa Vishakha Datta Sanskrit
Devichandraguptam Vishakha Datta Sanskrit
Panchatantra Vishnu Sharma Sanskrit
Rajtarangini Kalhana Sanskrit
Arthashastra Kautilya Sanskrit
Padmavat Malik Mohd Jayasi Awadhi
Kamasutra Vatsyayana Sanskrit
Mrichchakatikam Shudraka Sanskrit
Kiratarjuniya Bharavi Sanskrit
Dashakumaracarita ,Kavyadarsa Dandin Sanskrit
Ashtanga Sangraha Vagbhata Sanskrit
Vasavadatta Subandhu Sanskrit
Amarakosha Amarasimha Sanskrit
Panch-Siddhantika Brihat-Samhita Brihat-Jataka Varahamihira Sanskrit
Kavirajamargam* Srivijaya Kannada
Vikramarjunavijaya Pampa Kannada
Santipurana Ponna Kannada
Silappadkaram Ilango Adigal Tamil
Manimekalai Sattanar Tamil
Panduranga Mahatyam Tenali Ramakrishna Telugu

Book and its Author Facts to remember

Question Answer
Mudra Rakshasa by Vishakha Datta. The book which gives an account of how Chandragupta Maurya overthrew the power of the Nandas with the help of Kautilya.
Padmavat by Malik Mohd Jayasi The book based on the life of Padmini, Queen of Chittor. Allauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi, laid siege to the fort of Chittor in order to take Padmini as his wife. When the soldiers died fighting, Queen Padmini committed Jauhar alongwith other women of the fort.
Malavikagnimitra by Kalidasa The book which is based on the life of Agnimitra son of Pushyamitra Sunga. The latter founded the Sunga dynasty after killing the last Mauryan King Brihadratha.
Arthashastra by Kautilya The ancient Indian treatise on Economics as well as politics written by Kautilya (Chanakya) who had helped Chandragupta overthrow the power of the Nandas.
Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma A collection of Sanskrit fables which seeks to illustrate the principles of Politics (Rajneeti) through animal stories. It is considered a Nitishastra or a book on conduct of life.
Geet Govinda by Jaidev The book which deals with the love plays of the Dark Lord Krishna and his fair beloved Radha.
Kalidasa’s Abhigyan Shakuntalam The play based on the story of King Dushyant and Shakuntala as it appears in the beginning of the Mahabharata. King Dushyant and Shakuntala had a son name Bharat after whose name the country is named.
Kalhana’s Rajtarangini The book which deals with the history of Kashmir from the earliest times to 1150 A.D.
Ashtadhyayi by Panini It is highly systemised and complete book of Sanskrit grammar divided into eight chapters consisting of 3,995 sutras or rules.
Mahabhasya by Patanjali The book is a commentary on Panini's Ashtadhyayi in an effort to make Ashtadhyayi easily accessible to the average reader.
Prashnottar Ratna Malika by Adi Sankaracharya The book is in the form of questions and answers of eternal values as preached by Sanatana Dharma.
Kathasaritsagar by Somadeva The book is a collection of folk tales written for the entertainment of Queen Suryamati, wife of King Anantadeva of Kashmir. The famous Betal Pachisi is a part of this book.
Charaka Samhita by Charaka The book was authored by Charaka, known as the "Father of Indian Medicine". The book contains the fundamentals of Ayurveda including between its covers root causes of diseases, their treatment and also guidelines for a clean and healthy life.
Sushruta Samhita by Sushruta The book was authored by Sushruta, known as the "Father of Indian Surgery". In the books he explains various types of surgeries and surgical instruments.
Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta The book authored by famed Indian astronomer and mathematician is one of the most important ancient Indian books. The book explains the causes of eclipses and also the value of pi equivalent to 3.1416.
Bhrigu Samhita by Maharishi Bhrigu The book in dialogue form is an ancient treatise on astrology (jyotish shastra).
Buddha-charitam by Ashwaghosha The first complete biography of the Buddha written by Ashwaghosha who was patronised by Emperor Kanishka. It is considered a masterpiece of Sanskrit literature.

Name of the Battle Year Importance

Question Answer
1st battle of Tarain 1191 Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori
2nd battle of Tarain 1192 Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan
1st battle of Panipat 1526 Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodi
Battle of Khanwa 1527 Babur defeated Rana Sunga further strengthening his foothold in India.
Battle of Ghaghra 1529 Babur defeated Mahmud Lodi and Sultan Nusrat Shah thus establishing Mughal rule in India.
Battle of Chausa 1539 Sher Shah defeated Humayun thus breaking the Mughal rule in India.
Battle of Kanauj or Billgram 1540 Sher Shah defeated Humayun for the second time.
2nd battle of Panipat 1556 Akbar defeated Hemu
3rd battle of Panipat 1761 Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas
Battle of Talikota 1565 Deccan Sultanates defeated the glorious Vijayanagar empire
Battle of Haldighati 1576 Undecisive battle between Raja Man Singh of Mughal Army and Rana Pratap of Mewar.
Battle of Plassey 1757 British defeated Siraj-ud-duala with the help of Mir Zafar. This battle laid the foundation of British empire in India.
Battle of Wandiwash 1760 British decisively defeated the French in India. The Seven years war (1756 - 1763) between the British and the French in Europe.
Battle of Samugarh 1658 Aurangzeb defeated Dara Shikoh.
Battle of Karnal 1739 Nadir Shah defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.


Question Answer
Alexander He was the first to invade India in 326 B.C. He defeated King Porus on the banks of River Jhelum. The battle is known as the Battle of Hydaspes.
Mohammed Bin Qasim He was first muslim to invade India in 712 A.D. He conquered Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus river but did not advance further.
Timur Timur Lang or Timur the Lame, was a muslim conqueror who invaded India in 1398. The ruler of Delhi at the time was Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah.
Nadir Shah He was the ruler of Iran who invaded India in 1738. He defeated the Mughal Emperor Muhammed Shah and carried with him the Peacock throne and the Kohinoor diamond.
Ahmed Shah Abdali He was the ruler of Afghanistan who invaded India several times between 1747 & 1767, the most famous being the invasion of 1761 when he defeated the Marathas in the 3rd battle of Panipat.

Visitor Points to remember

Question Answer
Megasthenes He was the ambassador of Seleucus in the court of Chandragupta Maurya known to the Greek as Sandrocottus. He was also the author of a book 'Indica'.
Fahien He was a Chinese Buddhist monk who visited India during the reign of Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II). He is known for his visit to Lumbini, the birthplace of the Buddha. His journey is described in his travelogue "Record of Buddhist Kingdoms ...".
Huien Tsang He was a Chinese traveller who visited India during the time of Harsha Vardhana. His book is called Si-yu-ki or 'The Records of the Western World'.
Alberuni A persian scholar, he accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni and wrote a book titled 'Tahqiq-i-hind'. He was the first mulsim scholar to study India. He is regarded as the father of Indology.
Marco Polo He was a well known European traveller who visited many Eastern countries, including India. He visited Southern India where Rudramma Devi of the Kakatiyas was in power.
Ibn Batuta Ibn Batuta was a Moroccon traveller who visited India during the time of Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. His account of travels is known as the Rihla.
Thomas Roe Sir Thomas Roe was an English diplomat who visited the court of Jahangir in 1615 to seek protection for an English factory at Surat. His Journal of the mission to the Mogul Empire is a valuable contribution to the history of India of the time.
William Hawkins Captain William Hawkins led the first voyage of the English East India Company to India in 1609 when Jahangir was in power. He had a personal letter from King James I of England 1609, but did not succeed in seeking Jahangir's permission to establish a factory.
Nicolo Conti Italian merchant who visited India during the period of Deva Raya I of Vijayanagar (1420)
Abdul Razak He was a Persian cholar and ambassador of the ruler of Persia to Calicut who visited India during the rule of Deva Raya II of Vijayanagar during 1442 to 1445.
St Thomas He is believed to be the first Christian saint to visit India in 52 A.D..
Francois Bernier He was a French physician and traveller who visited India during 1658 and 1671. He was the personal physician of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for around 12 years during his stay in India. .

Court Poet In the Court of Well-known works

Kalidasa Vikramaditya Shakuntalam, Meghdoot
Question Answer
Bana Bhatt or Bana Harshavardhana Harsha Charita, Kadambari
Chand Bardai Prithviraj Chauhan Prithviraj Raso
Bhavabhuti King Yashovarman of Kannauj Mahaviracharita, Malatimadhava, Uttararamacharita
Amir Khusro mainly Allauddin Khilji but associated with 7 rulers of Delhi Sultannate Tuhfatus-Sighr, Qiranus-Sa'dain
Sri Ponna Rashtrakuta King Krishna III Shantipurana, Bhuvanaika-Ramabhyudaya
Parmanand Shivaji Shivbharat
Pandit Gangadhar Mishra Sambalpur King Baliar Singh Kosalananda Mahakavya
Hema Saraswati Kamtapur King Durlabh Narayan Prahalad Charita
Rajashekhara Gurjara Pratiharas Balabharata, Karpuramanjari, Balaramayana, Kavyamimamsa
Vedanayagam Sastriar King Serfoji II of Tanjore Bethlehem Kuravanji, Gnanakummi
Raghavanka Hoysala kings Harishchandra Kayva
Adikavi Pampa Chalukya King Arikesari II Vikramārjuna Vijaya or Pampa Bharata
Tirumalarya King Wodeyar Karna Vrittanta Kathe
Allasani Peddana Sri Krishna Deva Raya Swaarochisha Manu Sambhavam
Nandi Thimmana Sri Krishna Deva Raya Parijathapaharanam, Vanivilasam
Agha Hasan Amanat Wajid Ali Shah Inder Sabha
Ramprasad Sen Krishna Chandra of Nadia Vidyasundar, Shaktigiti.
Jayamkondkar Kulottunga Chola I Kalingattu parani
Ravikirti Pulakesin II Aihole incsription


Dynasty/King Capital
Question Answer
Cholas Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Mauryan Patliputra
Pallavas Kanchi
Pandyas Madurai
Chalukyas Vatapi or Badami
Later Chalukyas Kalyani
Kakatiyas Warangal
Satvahanas Pratisthana (modern day Paithan in Maharashtra)
Bahmani Gulbarga (Ahsanabad) and later Bidar (Muhammadabad)
Varman Pragjyotishpura (Guwahati)
Shunga Patliputra and later Vidisha
Rashtrakuta Manyakheta
Solanki Anhilwara
Shivaji Raigarh
Tipu Sultan Srirengapatnam
Ranjit Singh Lahore
Harshavardhana Thanesar and later Kanauj
Kanishka Purushapura


Dynasty Founder Last King/Last Great Ruler
Question Answer
Nanda Mahapadma or Ugrasena Dhana Nanda
Maurya Chandragupta Maurya Brihadratha
Gupta Chandragupta I Skandagupta (last great ruler)
Sunga Pushyamitra Devbhumi (last great ruler)
Satvahana Simuka Yajna Satkarni (last great ruler)
Chalukya (of Vatapi) Pulakesin I Kirtivarman Chalukya
Chola Vijayalaya Athirajendra
Rashtrakuta Danti Durga Indra IV
Solanki Moolraj I -
Slave Qutubuddin Aibak Muizuddin Qaiqabad
Khilji Jalal-ud-din Khusro Khan
Tughlak Ghias-ud-din Feroz Shah
Lodhi Bahlol Ibrahim
Moghul Babur Bahadur Shah II
Temples - Associated Dynasties and Locations
Temples Associated Dynasty Location
Question Answer
Khajuraho Bundelas or Chandelas Chattarpur, M.P.
Kailash temples Rashtrakutas Ellora, Maharashtra
Thousand Pillared Temple Kakatiyas Warangal (AP)
Ramappa Temple Kakatiyas Warangal (AP)
Brihadeswara Temple Cholas Tanjavur, Tamilnadu
Kailashnath temple Pallavas Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu
Shore temple Pallavas Mammalapuram, Tamilnadu
Dilwara temple Solankies Mt Abu, Rajasthan
Hazara temple Vijayanagar Hampi, Karnataka
Virupaksha temple Chalukyas Pattadakal, Karnataka
Sun temple Solankis Modhera, Gujarat

Dynasties of Delhi Sultanate.

Dynasty Period of Rule Prominent rulers
Question Answer
Mamluk or Slave dynasty 1206 - 1290 Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Balban
Khilji dynasty 1290 - 1320 Alauddin Khilji
Tughlaq dynasty 1321 - 1413 Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Sayyid dynasty 1414 - 1450 Khizr Khan
Lodhi dynasty 1451 - 1526 Ibrahim Lodhi
Babur Zaheeruddin Mohammed 1526 to 1530
Humayun Naseeruddin Mohammed 1530 to 1540
Akbar Jalaluddin Mohammed 1556 to 1605
Jahangir Nooruddin Salim 1605 to 1627
Shahjahan Shahbuddin Muhammed Khurram 1627 to 1658
Aurangzeb Muhiuddin Mohammed 1658 to 1707


Name Other Name(s) Remarks
Question Answer
Gulbadan Begum She was the sister of Humayun. She is best known as the author of Humayun Namah.
Maraiam-uz-Zamani Harkha Bai, Hira Kunwari She was the third wife of Akbar and the mother of Jahangir. She was the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber. Raja Bhagwan Das, Akbar's companion was her brother.
Noor Jahan Meher-un-nisa Wife of Jahangir, daughter of Ghiyas Beg (Idmat-ud-daula), she enjoyed power which no other Mughal lady ever enjoyed.
Mumtaj Mahal Anjumand Banu Begum Wife of Shah Jahan, mother of 14 children including Aurangzeb, Dara Shikoh and Jahanara Begum. Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in her memory.
Jahan Ara - Daughter of Shah Jahan, she is well-known for looking after her father during his confinement by Aurangzeb.
Rabia-ul-Daurani Dilras Banu Begum She was the first wife of Aurangzeb. The famous Bibi ka Maqbara at Aurangabad was constructed by her son Prince Azam Shah in her memory