the House Committee on Un-American Activities; searched out possible Communist influence inside and outside the US government; caused widespread paranoia and fear of communist supporters that might want to overthrow the government -> people don't trust each other, people lose their jobs on communist suspicion, 1st amendment rights and other rights violated in search, and people who refuse to comply are arrested/kicked out because there is no way to prove them right/wrong
‐ Alien Registration Act (Smith Act), 1940
‐ Federal Loyalty Program (1947)
‐ Alger Hiss
State department official accused of spying for the USSR; former Communist spy provides "evidence" of government documents that he claimed that Hiss had typed up -> Hiss is sent to jail for lying about passing on the documents, despite his claims that he is innocent and the documents are fake; demonstrates fear of communist spies to the extent that any evidence, even shaky evidence, was used against suspects
‐ McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)
‐ Joseph McCarthy
anti-communist activist and senator who charged that communists were taking over the government; made unsupported accusations on suspected communists without providing evidence, causing paranoia and mistrust throughout government and US society; eventually, his bullying of witnesses cost him public support
manhattan project scientists suspect that a bomb more powerful than the a-bomb, the h-bomb, could be created, but are unsure about the morality of its ridiculously destructive power; however, USSR explosion of their own a-bomb causes push for the development of the hydrogen bomb in 1952; USSR follows in less than a year, increasing suspicion and tension between the 2 powers
policy in which the US was willing to go to the brink of war to keep the peace, promising to use all of its force, including nuclear weapons, to stop aggressor nations; caused the US to beef up its defense program to get ready to defend itself, which in turn caused the USSR to produce their own weapons -> arms race, suspicion, fear; more interventive than containment -> active threat of massive power against aggression rather than just boxing in communism
‐ John D. Dulles
eisenhower's secretary of state; staunchly anti-communist, and proposed brinksmanship
‐ CIA, role in Cold War
central intelligence agency; eisenhower administration relied on it to gather foreign info and to carry out secret operations to weaken governments that posed a threat to the united states; did this because the USSR ordered covert operations and so it wanted to be on the same level; in iran and in guatemala, instituted leaders that were west-friendly
‐ Warsaw Pact
USSR had been growing closer to the US after stalin's death in 1953, recognizing west germany and making peace with other countries; however, formed warsaw pact, military alliance with eastern european satellite nations, once west germany was allowed to rearm and join NATO; was scared
‐ “Open Skies”
proposal by eisenhower in 1955 geneva conference; said taht the US and the USSR would allow flights over each other's territory to guard against surprise nuclear attacks; rejected by USSR, worried that the US was trying to find USSR's weapons
‐ Nikita Khrushchev
head of the USSR communist party; involved in the soviet aggressions in hungary and in the U-2 incident
‐ Hungary, 1956
Khrushchev is a less brutal ruler than stalin -> allows hungary to have more freedom and relinquishes soviet control over the country; when Hungary demands to leave the warsaw pact and other liberties, however, the USSR kills 30,000 hungarian protesters -> US doesn't help fight USSR, but dislikes their invasion and provides aid to the hungarian refugees
‐ Eisenhower Doctrine
increased USSR support in the middle east leads eisenhower to issue the eisenhower doctrine in 1957, stating that the US will use american forces to defend the middle east against attack by any communist party; more interventive, actively fighting the spread of communism rather than just supplying aid
first unmanned artificial satellite sent into orbit around the earth; sent by sovietys, and demonstrated large amounts of USSR power that could also be used as an attack; made US feel inferior and worried, strive to catch up to USSR
‐ U‐2 Incident, Francis Gary Powers, Khrushchev denounces Eisenhower
US had been using U-2 planes to make secret high-altitude flights over USSR territory to take photos; planned to be cancelled, but on the last U-2 flight pilot Francis Gary Powers was shot down and taken hostage by USSR; destroys tentative trust between the USSR and the US, Khrushchev is angered and denounces Eisenhower at the next conference, stopping any potential peace talks; as a result, the 60s continue with high tension and aggressions still exist between the US and the USSR
stems from differing US-USSR views on what to do in the postwar period, and refers to the idea that the world was divided into 2 camps: communist versus capitalist, and that one could not exist peacefully beside the other
‐ Perception of communism as monolithic, controlled from Moscow, and expansionary
Western capitalist powers tended to assume that communism was a monolithic institution controlled from Moscow (the USSR) and bent on expanding throughout the world; led to a struggle between the US and the USSR
‐ Containment, “Long Telegram”, Truman Doctrine
containment - foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War to defeat the Soviet Union by responding to any attempts to expand its or communism's influence (fighting the spread of communism to contain it within specific borders, passive because it was not aggression, but a counter-action applied at specific geographic points); laid out in George F. Kennan's "long telegram" in 1946; eventually, Truman declares that the US will provide aid to anyone resisting "outside pressures" as in communism -> Truman Doctrine
‐ Marshall Plan
proposal that the US provide aid to all European countries that needed it. However, nations receiving aid had to agree to remove trade barriers and to cooperate economically. This effectively removed countries under communist occupation of the USSR by forcing nations to cooperate and open their markets rather than remain under soviet control
‐ End of the Chinese Civil War, conservatives’ reaction in the US
ends may 1949 with a communist win; conservative Americans blame Truman for not doing enough to stop the communist takeover and the loss of china; Truman administration argues that China's own internal problems (Kai-shek's corruption) caused its defeat, and that any more intervention would have caused war; begins to intervene more
‐ NSC‐68, “Blueprint” for the Cold War, prescriptions
argued that the goal of the USSR was to spread communism throughout the entire world using aggressions; said that the US should use active containment to stop its spread; principal thesis was the USSR intended to become the single dominant world power and use communism to expand soviet authority and rule the world; was a "blueprint" for the ideas of the cold war, prescribed increased military, shift to active containment and aggressive preparedness, peacetime military spending
‐ Korean War – beginning of a shift to active Containment
Northern Korean invasion convinces Truman of communist aggressions and to sign and begin NSC-68 and active containment; uses war as an active containment, increases aid to Taiwan and supports French Indochinese colonialism
The Cold War in Southeast Asia, 1946‐1954 (read the article first!)
Describe the actions taken by the US after WWII to halt what was seen as the threat of Soviet communism.
Adopted a containment policy against soviet military expansion and incitements of rebellion to spread communism; followed the Truman doctrine and supported countries resisting outside communist attacks; provided aid to Europe using the Marshall plan, stabilizing countries and weakening the desire to turn to the U.S.S.R.; organized the Berlin airlift to help Germany resist the U.S.S.R.; formed NATO to deter soviet aggressions; refused to recognize china after its communist takeover.
What was the US attitude like toward France's initial efforts to reassert control over Indochina after WWII?
Had little interest in France's fight against the DRV (the communist north); however, disliked French colonialism and didn't want to support it because of that; was actually more sympathetic to Vietnam.
Explain how and why US attitudes toward the French colonial war in Indochina changed in 1950.
In 1950, communism began to spread in Asia to China and North Korea; the US wanted to prevent its spread, so it sent aid to help anti-communist France stay stable in Vietnam; begins to view the struggle as not colonialistic, but as part of its own effort to combat communism; still disliked colonialism and wanted France to grant Vietnam independence, but communism was a higher priority.
In what sense were the US and France "uneasy allies" from June 1950 to July 1954?
Allied by a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement, in which the US sent France economic and military aid to help fight the communist DRV; however, the US tried to convince France to stop its colonialism, which created unease with the french because that was the whole reason they were fighting and they were only allies with the US because they were getting aid; the US, on the other hand, wanted an anticommunist, anticolonialist Vietnam.
Why were the US proposals to intervene in Indochina in 1954 during the siege of Dienbienphu never carried out?
The U.S. was going to help France fight the Vietminh using its own military, but also wanted GB to back it up; when GB refused, the US pulled out too because it didn't want to fight alone and had reservations against beginning a ground war in Asia; this increases tensions with France, who dislikes how the US expects them to give up their colonies even though they're the ones fighting.
Why was the US reluctant to attend the Geneva conference?
They didn't want to negotiate with or recognize the Chinese communist government that was there; it also knew that going to the conference meant negotiating with the Vietminh, and it didn't want any land to be given up to communism, would rather have fought and won it all.
Explain how American intervention in Vietnam technically began in 1947, "in the villages of Greece and the mountains of Turkey"
Greece and Turkey were the first places that the USSR began to spread its communist influence in the postwar period; this created the original conflict between the U.S., who wanted international peace, and the U.S.S.R., who wanted more power, sowing the first seeds of the "bipolar" world; this lead to the capitalist vs. communist issue, directly leading the U.S. to intervene in Vietnam to stop its spread.
‐ What are three things you learned from the Truman excerpt?
"The Big Turn" - the shift from passive containment to aggressive containment in 1950 with the creation of NSC-68, due to the spread of communism to Asia; communism was mainly ignored before this, as the US was more preoccupied with the USSR, but after 1950 the US supported French intervention to stop vietnamese communism
What are three things you learned from the Eisenhower excerpt?
US didn't want to get directly involved in vietnam, but preferred to send joint aid with GB to France to fight the Vietminh; the eisenhower administration focused on preventing the spread of communism; the US disagreed with the Geneva conference's ruling of communism in north vietnam, but agreed to respect it
What events does LaFeber suggest led to the shift from Truman's containment policy to Eisenhower's more active policies based on the Domino Theory?
fear of spreading communism; idea that the spread of communism into asia would eventually cut off all the markets surrounding the important japanese capitalist markets and turn japan communist for it to survive; prompted more aggressive intervention
Pages linking here (main versions and versions by same user)