increased industrialism leading to a greater need for raw materials and markets -> competition for colonies; increased sense of vulnerability from this leads to better weapons -> arms race; countries feel they need to defend themselves from arms race -> alliance system that would drag everyone into war
Why did the concept of nationalism threaten the large empires and big states of Europe?
people began to see themselves as members of a common group than as a nation -> especially in large countries which contained many ethnic groups, resentment from repression leads to calls for self-rule and rebellion
What event led immediately to the start of WWI?
Serbian nationalist group assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austrian throne, to convince Austria to give up land to Serbia so they could join their ethnic group -> Germany supports AH, Russia supports Serbia -> alliance system eventually pulls everyone in
Members of the Allied Powers
Russia, France, Great Britain
Members of the Central Powers
Germany, AH, Ottoman Empire
President Wilson invoked the (1) during 1909, which explained the rights of (2) during wartime. Both the (3) and (4) governments broke the rules of the treaty.
(1) - London Declaration; (2) - neutrality; was neutral if it did not offer shelter to vehicles, troops, or offer weapons to either side; however, it could not keep private businesses from doing so; (3) British, (4) German (British ships masqueraded as American ships to avoid attack -> Germany open fires on any and all merchant ships, helping bring US into war)
After the Lusitania sank, 2 groups of people criticized Wilson's actions. Who were they and what problems did they see?
Lusitania - British ship w/American passenger sunk by German missile -> America outraged, but Wilson just protests to Germany -> secretary of state resigns, thought Wilson's insistence on maintaining American passenger rights would lead to entry in war; Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge criticize Wilson for not immediately declaring war
What 2 actions did Germany take that led Wilson to declare war?
Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare (will sink anything, even American ships, because they don't want American trade strengthening Britain); also, Zimmermann telegram (message to Mexico that Germany will give it US land if it enters the war to help Germany) -> showed futility of American neutrality
List 3 principles of the 14 Points. Which was the most important?
elimination of secret treaties that caused war by open democracy; freedom of the seas and of trade; disarmament, self-rule for colonies and ethnic groups; most important - League of Nations to guarantee political voices to everyone and resolve disputes
Anti-German propaganda - 3 types
Germans seen as bad, war hysteria against them surfaced (orchestras can't play German composers, German names of families and food are renamed; German institutes closed down, textbooks revised to be anti-German)
What was the purpose of the Committee on Public Information?
to promote the war at home in America by shaping the info people received about it; posted pro-war ads all over to increase patriotism and garner support to help end the war
The war cost $337 billion, with America having a $3.7 billion investment in other countries from loans. Overall, there were over 9 million military deaths, 10 million civilians casualties, and 7 million permanently disabled. Spanish flu, the spread of which was aided by the war, killed another 20 million.
Why did Wilson not take any Republicans with him to the Paris Peace Conference?
Woodrow Wilson's political rival, Henry Cabot Lodge, won a position which was very influential in treaty votes. Wilson’s personal hatred of Lodge along with their differing political opinions, and wounded pride over the majority of Republicans being elected kept him from seeking Republican assistance.
Why was Wilson welcomed in Paris?
The people of Europe were exhausted by the war, and welcomed Wilson’s 14 Points plan for peace. Minority groups and nationalists from colonies especially favored him. Political leaders, who had very differing opinions on what to do next, were not as fond of the US President.
List the Big Four and the countries they represent.
The Big Four were representatives of largest, strongest countries that decided matters. They were Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, Premier George Clemenceau of France, President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy.
At the heart of the League of Nations covenant was (1), which spelled out new (2) (3) arrangements. Many senators worried about these terms.
At the heart of the League of Nations covenant was Article X, which spelled out new collective security arrangements. Many senators worried about these terms.
Why wasn't self-rule included in the treaty to the extent Wilson wanted it to be?
Many countries wanted their security/economic concerns met first. France, Italy, Japan, and Britain all wanted to maintain colonies for economic reasons. They finally settled on mandates, and made small new states in Eastern Europe despite ethnic groups often dislike of their often unjust borders.
What was a mandate?
A mandate was an intermediate step for groups on the way to self-rule. They called for the Allied Powers to secure control over some of the Central Powers' former territories to "prepare" the native inhabitants for eventual self-rule. This frustrated some living in these places because they were not truly free, but still had hope for self-rule in the future.
Why were many Germans angered at the terms of the Versailles Treaty?
Germans were angered due to the terms containing few of Wilson's original lenient 14 Points. They felt betrayed, but were forced to accept as they did not want yet another war. The terms forced Germany to take all of the blame, pay reparations, give up territory and all colonies, reduce their military’s size and funding, gave Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and demilitarized borders so that they could not expand again.
What were 2 problems Americans saw with the League of Nations?
Americans were unsure if the League of Nations would have the power to actually support its decisions and stop its aggressors. Many thought it was too liberal and would weaken American sovereignty by tangling it in affairs it had no part in.
Wilson's plan for peace in the postwar era, comprised of US diplomatic concerns that were a radical departure from the old standards of democracy; advocated open democracy, freedom of the seas, free trade, disarmament, self-rule for nationalist groups, and the formation of the League of Nations; however, France, Italy, and Britain didn't agree with the leniency of the treaty and so the Versailles Treaty didn't contain many of the points.
• League of Nations
an assembly of nations, excluding Germany and Russia, that was meant to ensure peace in Europe after WWI and guarantee political independence and maintain the borders of all the nations; ultimately, failed in part because the US didn't join and so most nations were unable to do anything
• Vote in the Senate – Ratification or Rejection? Reasons.
rejection; united states felt that getting involved in the league of nations would entangle it in volatile european alliances and bring it into arguments and wars that it wasn't a part of; didn't mind losing some trading status with european nations, because they could easily trade with asia; also thought by upholding washington's ideas of isolation and neutrality they could focus on improving the US, and didn't want to get roped into defending smaller countries' borders
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