increased industrialism leading to a greater need for raw materials and markets -> competition for colonies; increased sense of vulnerability from this leads to better weapons -> arms race; countries feel they need to defend themselves from arms race -> alliance system that would drag everyone into war
Why did the concept of nationalism threaten the large empires and big states of Europe?
people began to see themselves as members of a common group than as a nation -> especially in large countries which contained many ethnic groups, resentment from repression leads to calls for self-rule and rebellion
What event led immediately to the start of WWI?
Serbian nationalist group assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austrian throne, to convince Austria to give up land to Serbia so they could join their ethnic group -> Germany supports AH, Russia supports Serbia -> alliance system eventually pulls everyone in
Members of the Allied Powers
Russia, France, Great Britain
Members of the Central Powers
Germany, AH, Ottoman Empire
President Wilson invoked the (1) during 1909, which explained the rights of (2) during wartime. Both the (3) and (4) governments broke the rules of the treaty.
(1) - London Declaration; (2) - neutrality; was neutral if it did not offer shelter to vehicles, troops, or offer weapons to either side; however, it could not keep private businesses from doing so; (3) British, (4) German (British ships masqueraded as American ships to avoid attack -> Germany open fires on any and all merchant ships, helping bring US into war)
After the Lusitania sank, 2 groups of people criticized Wilson's actions. Who were they and what problems did they see?
Lusitania - British ship w/American passenger sunk by German missile -> America outraged, but Wilson just protests to Germany -> secretary of state resigns, thought Wilson's insistence on maintaining American passenger rights would lead to entry in war; Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge criticize Wilson for not immediately declaring war
What 2 actions did Germany take that led Wilson to declare war?
Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare (will sink anything, even American ships, because they don't want American trade strengthening Britain); also, Zimmermann telegram (message to Mexico that Germany will give it US land if it enters the war to help Germany) -> showed futility of American neutrality
List 3 principles of the 14 Points. Which was the most important?
elimination of secret treaties that caused war by open democracy; freedom of the seas and of trade; disarmament, self-rule for colonies and ethnic groups; most important - League of Nations to guarantee political voices to everyone and resolve disputes
Anti-German propaganda - 3 types
Germans seen as bad, war hysteria against them surfaced (orchestras can't play German composers, German names of families and food are renamed; German institutes closed down, textbooks revised to be anti-German)
What was the purpose of the Committee on Public Information?
to promote the war at home in America by shaping the info people received about it; posted pro-war ads all over to increase patriotism and garner support to help end the war
337 billion $ cost, with America having 3.7 billion investment in other countries from loans; 9 million soldiers die, 10 million civilians die, 7 million permanently disabled, Spanish flu helped by war kills 20 million
Why did Wilson not take any Republicans with him to the Paris Peace Conference?
Wilson's political rival, Henry Cabot Lodge, wins position which is very influential in treaty votes -> personal hatred of Lodge, differing political opinion, wounded pride over majority of Republicans being elected keeps him from seeking Lodge's or Republican assistance
Why was Wilson welcomed in Paris?
people of Europe sick of war, welcomed his 14 Points plan for peace; especially, minority groups and nationalists from colonies welcome him, support 14 Points' statement of "self-rule" however, not welcomed by political leaders, who had very differing opinions on what to do next
List the Big Four and the countries they represent.
representatives of largest, strongest countries that basically decided matters; Britain - prime minister David Lloyd George; France - Premier Georges Clemenceau; America - President Wilson; Italy - prime minister Vittorio Orlando
At the heart of the League of Nations covenant was (1), which spelled out new (2) (3) arrangements. Many senators worried about these terms.
League of Nations covenant - included in the basic outline of the Treaty of Versailles, but disliked by American senators, who did not want to go against the Monroe Doctrine with the treaty or weaken American superiority in foreign affairs; (1) - Article X, which spelled out new (2) - collective (3) security; stated that everyone would assist each other against aggression, respect the borders drawn up by the Treaty of Versailles and that the League would maintain them; however, this would drag the US into border politics it had no part of
Why wasn't self-rule included in the treaty to the extent Wilson wanted it to be?
other countries wanted their security/economic concerns met first; France, Italy, Japan, Britain want to maintain colonies for economic reasons; finally settled on mandates, and made small new states in Eastern Europe (however, ethnic groups often disliked unjust borders)
What was a mandate?
an intermediate step for groups on the way to self-rule; called for the Allied Powers to secure control over some of the Central Powers' former territories to "prepare" the native inhabitants for eventual self-rule; frustrated people b/c they didn't get freedom, but still hoped for self-rule eventually
Why were many Germans angered at the terms of the Versailles Treaty?
the terms contained few of Wilson's original lenient 14 Points -> felt betrayed, but forced to accept if they didn't want another war; forced Germany to take all the blame, pay reparations, took territory and all colonies, reduced military, gave Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and demilitarized borders so that they could not expand again
What were 2 problems Americans saw with the League of Nations?
wondered if it would have the power to actually support its decisions and stop its aggressors; thought it was too liberal and would weaken American sovereignty by tangling it in affairs it had no part of
Wilson's plan for peace in the postwar era, comprised of US diplomatic concerns that were a radical departure from the old standards of democracy; advocated open democracy, freedom of the seas, free trade, disarmament, self-rule for nationalist groups, and the formation of the League of Nations; however, France, Italy, and Britain didn't agree with the leniency of the treaty and so the Versailles Treaty didn't contain many of the points.
• League of Nations
an assembly of nations, excluding Germany and Russia, that was meant to ensure peace in Europe after WWI and guarantee political independence and maintain the borders of all the nations; ultimately, failed in part because the US didn't join and so most nations were unable to do anything
• Vote in the Senate – Ratification or Rejection? Reasons.
rejection; united states felt that getting involved in the league of nations would entangle it in volatile european alliances and bring it into arguments and wars that it wasn't a part of; didn't mind losing some trading status with european nations, because they could easily trade with asia; also thought by upholding washington's ideas of isolation and neutrality they could focus on improving the US, and didn't want to get roped into defending smaller countries' borders
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